Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Trees. Leaves opposite, 1-pinnate (in ours). Domatia 0. Inflorescences composed of dense, terminal or lateral, clusters or panicles. Flowers bisexual or unisexual. Calyx 4-lobed or 0. Petals 4, free or ± connate, or 0. Stamens usually 2. Stigmas 2. Fruit a flattened, 1-2-seeded samara, with an elongate, apical wing.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Fraxinus L.:
United States (North America)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Actinocladium anamorph of Actinocladium rhodosporum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Plant / resting place / on
Aeolothrips versicolor may be found on Fraxinus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Agrocybe cylindracea parasitises branch of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita battarrae is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Anavirga dematiaceous anamorph of Anavirga laxa is saprobic on rotting leaf of Fraxinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodiella semisupina grows on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Apiosporopsis carpinea is saprobic on overwintered, dead leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / pathogen
Arabis Mosaic virus infects and damages live leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Armillaria borealis is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed, pallid pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta metulispora causes spots on live leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: autumn

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Aurantiporus alborubescens is saprobic on large stump of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia mesenterica is saprobic on old, dead stump of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered sporodochium of Bactrodesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Bactrodesmium abruptum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered sporodochium of Bactrodesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Bactrodesmium obovatum is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered sporodochium of Bactrodesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Bactrodesmium pallidum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered sporodochium of Bactrodesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Bactrodesmium spilomeum is saprobic on wood or bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse stroma of Barrmaelia oxyacanthae is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron caesiocinereum is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron eyrei is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Battarrea phalloides is associated with Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Bertia moriformis var. moriformis is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Bisporella citrina is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-12

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Bisporella sulfurina is saprobic on fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-2

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera fumosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bolbitius reticulatus is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus moravicus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered, superficial perithecium of Bombardia bombarda is saprobic on dead stump of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Alysidium anamorph of Botryobasidium aureum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Botryobasidium ellipsosporum is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Botryobasidium obtusisporum is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Fungus / saprobe
fruitbody of Botryohypochnus isabellinus is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, in large groups pseudothecium of Botryosphaeria stevensii is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachydesmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Brachydesmiella biseptata is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Brachyopa scutellaris is saprobic on sap run of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium bloxamii is saprobic on rotten bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium britannicum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium dingleyae is saprobic on dead, rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-9
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium nigrum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium obovatum is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Byssomerulius corium is saprobic on fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera viscosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe ionides is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe obscurissima is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
Caloscypha fulgens is associated with Fraxinus
Remarks: season: Spring

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed, multi-level perithecium of Camarops lutea is saprobic on dead stump of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Camarosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium orni is saprobic on branch of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
stroma of Capronia nigerrima is associated with fungus-infected wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
deeply immersed perithecium of Ceratosphaeria lampadophora is saprobic on very rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia excelsa is saprobic on large, decayed, fallen trunk of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia purpurea is saprobic on large, decayed, fallen trunk of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia viridans is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporiopsis gilvescens is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporiopsis pannocincta is saprobic on decayed, soft white-rotted wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chaetopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetopsis grisea is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
subiculate perithecium of Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma is associated with fungus infected, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Catenularia dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria cupulifera is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 12-6

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Catenularia dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria innumera is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Chaetosphaeria ovoidea is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria pulviscula is saprobic on dead, often rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara aurea is saprobic on dead leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
shortly-stalked apothecium of Chlorencoelia versiformis is saprobic on rotting wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Clitopilus pinsitus is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Clytra laeviuscula grazes on live flower of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma empetri is saprobic on dead leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Collybia fusipes infects and damages live root of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immerse perithecium of Coniochaeta pulveracea is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-3

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coniophora arida is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coprinellus domesticus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coriolopsis gallica is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coronicium gemmiferum is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersd, often in small groups perithecium of Coronophora angustata is saprobic on branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
grouped, immersed perithecium of Coronophora annexa is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-2

Foodplant / saprobe
loose, cotton colony of Costantinella anamorph of Costantinella micheneri is saprobic on woody debris of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Costantinella dematiaceous anamorph of Costantinella terrestris is saprobic on fallen twig of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus cinnabarinus is saprobic on decayed, dead, fallen trunk of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus luteolus is saprobic on dead, fallen twig (small) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus mollis is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Criorhina berberina is saprobic on wet, decaying root of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Crocicreas coronatum is saprobic on dead petiole of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-11
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Crocicreas dolosellum is saprobic on dead petiole of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Croesus septentrionalis grazes on live leaf (margin) of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Cryptocoryneum dematiaceous anamorph of Cryptocoryneum condensatum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Cryptocoryneum dematiaceous anamorph of Cryptocoryneum rilstonii is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, subperithecial, linear stroma of Cryptosphaeria eunomia is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
broadly effused stroma of Cryptovalsa protracta is saprobic on dead, extensively blackened branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immersed pseudothecium of Cucurbitaria obducens is saprobic on decorticate, locally blackened wood of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota bucknallii is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota hetieri is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota moelleri is associated with Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dacrymyces enatus is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dactylaria anamorph of Dactylaria candidula is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-4

Plant / associate
superficial, scattered. sessile apothecium of Dactylospora stygia is associated with decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedalea quercina is saprobic on hard, barely decayed wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
superficial stroma of Daldinia concentrica parasitises live wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Dendrothrips degeeri may be found on live leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 7-9

Plant / resting place / on
Dendrothrips saltator may be found on live Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, solitary or in small clusters apothecium of Dermea tulasnei is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, often confluent, covered becoming erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead, dry branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Diaporthe rudis is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyosporium toruloides is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia inquinans feeds on Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered or in small groups pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodiella fibricola is saprobic on wood chip of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-11

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, clustered pycnidium of Dothiorella coelomycetous anamorph of Dothiorella fraxinea is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immersed apothecium of Durella atrocyanea is saprobic on mainly decorticate branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 12-2

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Eichleriella deglubens is saprobic on fallen branch of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, clustered apothecium of Encoelia fascicularis is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Endoxyla cirrhosa is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: good condition: 4-5

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma parkensis is associated with live Fraxinus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Episphaeria fraxinicola grows on living bark of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Erythricium laetum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Eutypa flavovirens is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Eutypa lata is saprobic on dead twig of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Eutypella acericola is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-3
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic perithecium of Eutypella scoparia is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia nucleata is saprobic on dead, fallen, usually decorticate wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia plana is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia thuretiana is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis calcea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis effusa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis galzinii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acrogenospora dematiaceous anamorph of Farlowiella carmichaeliana is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Flagelloscypha punctiformis is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Flammulina velutipes var. lactea parasitises living wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: mainly winter

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma applanatum parasitises live trunk of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum berkeleyi is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum pectinatum is associated with Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered perithecium of Gibberella pulicaris is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Gloeosporidiella coelomycetous anamorph of Gloeosporidiella turgida is saprobic on dead twig of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloiothele lactescens is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Graphium dematiaceous anamorph of Graphium calicioides is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Grifola frondosa parasitises live root of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus junonius is saprobic on decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena tortuosa is saprobic on decayed stick of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hericium cirrhatum is saprobic on fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hericium coralloides is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
fruitbody of Hericium erinaceus feeds on trunk of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
effuse colony of Heteroconium anamorph of Heteroconium tetracoilum is associated with damp, rotten branch of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hygrocybe pratensis var. pratensis is associated with live Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
epigeous or hypogeous fruitbody of Hymenogaster luteus is associated with Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hymenoscyphus albidus is saprobic on fallen, locally blackened petiole of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus calyculus is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus laetus is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphoderma guttuliferum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia arguta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia gossypina is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia latitans is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypochnella violacea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Hypocrea gelatinosa is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Geniculosporium anamorph of Hypoxylon howeanum is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Hypoxylon intermedium is saprobic on dead, stacked timber of Fraxinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon macrocarpum is saprobic on dead, decorticate bough (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon perforatum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon petriniae is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon rubiginosum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
widely effused stroma of Hypoxylon rubiginosum agg. is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Hysterium angustatum is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered or gregarious, inconspicuous, more or less superficial hysterothecium of Hysterium pulicare is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly superficial hysterothecium of Hysterographium fraxini is saprobic on bark (branch) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe bongardii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe godeyi is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe perlata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus cuticularis is saprobic on live trunk of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus radiatus is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Junghuhnia nitida is saprobic on decayed, dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Kavinia alboviridis is saprobic on decayed, dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces leucolepidotus is saprobic on decayed, dead log (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Lachnum cerinum is saprobic on usually decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-9

Foodplant / saprobe
somewhat short-stalked apothecium of Lachnum corticale is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-12

Foodplant / saprobe
long slender stalked apothecium of Lachnum pygmaeum is saprobic on fallen twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius mairei is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius serifluus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, then breaking through bark apothecium of Laquearia sphaeralis is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Lasiosphaeria canescens is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-6

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Lasiosphaeria hirsuta is saprobic on old wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Lasiosphaeria ovina is saprobic on Armillaria mellea-decayed wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, closely packed in large clusters perithecium of Lasiosphaeria spermoides is saprobic on rotting wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lentinellus cochleatus is saprobic on dead, decayed stump of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota aspera is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepista irina is saprobic on dead, rotting leaf of litter of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Limacella delicata var. delicata is associated with Fraxinus

Plant / resting place / on
female of Liothrips setinodis may be found on live leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
usually immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma compressum is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-2

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lyophyllum favrei is associated with Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Macrotyphula juncea is saprobic on damp litter of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius bulliardii is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: - late autumn
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius cohaerens is saprobic on litter of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius epiphyllus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying leaf of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius torquescens is saprobic on debris of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mariannaea anamorph of Mariannaea elegans is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Megalocystidium luridum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporoschisma dematiaceous anamorph of Melanochaeta aotearoae is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Melanomma fuscidulum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, thickly clustered perithecium of Melanopsamma pomiformis is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Gonytrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella inaequalis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Chloridium dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella vermicularioides is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed or erumpent perithecium of Melomastia mastoidea is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora ciliata is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora anamorph of Menispora tortuosa is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
cyphelloid basidiocarp of Merismodes anomala is saprobic on twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-2

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale foetidum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia ligni is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia melaleuca is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Monodictys dematiaceous anamorph of Monodictys melanopa is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena arcangeliana is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena capillaris is saprobic on dead, decayed, drifted leaf of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena crocata is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed woody of debris of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena pseudocorticola is saprobic on live bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena rosea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying leaf of litter of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycoacia aurea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycoacia uda is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed, white rotted log of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
stroma of Myriangium duriaei is associated with live bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Nectria coccinea is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nectria episphaeria is associated with pyrenomycete infection Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
synnema of Fusarium anamorph of Nectria flavoviridis is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / gall
perithecium of Nectria galligena causes gall of live, cankered branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria mammoidea var. mammoidea is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria viridescens is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse stroma of Nemania chestersii is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / saprobe
partly immersed, weakly stromatic perithecium of Nemania confluens is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
becoming superficial perithecium of Neopeckia fulcita is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nitschkia collapsa is associated with fungus-infested Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-3

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, grouped, subiculate perithecium of Nitschkia confertula is saprobic on very rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nitschkia cupularis is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia auricolor is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia luteorubella is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia sarraziniana is saprobic on wet bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ossicaulis lignatilis is saprobic on dead, decayed, fallen wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Otthia spiraeae is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oudemansiella mucida is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oxyporus latemarginatus is saprobic on dead, fallen usually decayed, white rotten trunk (large) of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oxyporus obducens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Plant / resting place / on
female of Oxythrips halidayi may be found on Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pachnocybe anamorph of Pachnocybe albida is saprobic on rotting log of Fraxinus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Pachyprotasis antennata grazes on leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Pachyprotasis rapae grazes on leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
imbricate or clustered fruitbody of Panellus serotinus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: mainly late 11-2

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panellus stipticus is saprobic on live trunk (wounded) of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panus conchatus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora boidinii is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora limitata is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora lycii is saprobic on dead, fallen stick of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora violaceolivida is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Perenniporia fraxinea is saprobic on live trunk (base) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey
minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula cinnamomea is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phaeogalera dissimulans is saprobic on fallen, usually decayed twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-early 3
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Phaeohelotium italicum is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 8-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeoisaria dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeoisaria clavulata is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phanerochaete calotricha is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phanerochaete jose-ferreirae is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phanerochaete sordida is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phellinus punctatus is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebia lilascens is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebia tremellosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella tulasnelloidea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiopsis ravenelii is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, clustered basidiocarp of Phleogena faginea is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / internal feeder
Phloeophagus lignarius feeds within dead, esp hollow wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota aurivella is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota lucifera is saprobic on dead, decayed, buried woody debris of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota tuberculosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Fraxinus

Foodplant / feeds on
superficial, clustered pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma glomerata feeds on Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma samararum is saprobic on fallen samara (wing) of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-4

Plant / associate
imago of Platyrhinus resinosus is associated with Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus cornucopiae is saprobic on dead, decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: summer
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus dryinus is saprobic on live, standing trunk of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus aurantiorugosus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus chrysophaeus is saprobic on dead, very decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus luctuosus is saprobic on decayed stump of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus pellitus is saprobic on dead, decayed trunk of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus phlebophorus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus podospileus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus romellii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus salicinus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus thomsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed, often part buried wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus umbrosus is saprobic on dead, very decayed stump (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Pocota personata is saprobic on rot hole of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus brumalis is saprobic on dead, still attached to fallen tree twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: early winter-early spring
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus durus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus leptocephalus is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus squamosus is saprobic on dead, decaying wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus tuberaster is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia leucomallella is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) log (large) of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia stiptica is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) cut end of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia subcaesia is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia tephroleuca is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia wakefieldiae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Proliferodiscus pulveraceus is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, exposed by peeling back or shedding of host periderm apothecium of Propolis farinosa is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12 (best condition: 2-3)

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate perithecium of Protocrea farinosa is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella laevissima is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella leucotephra is saprobic on dead, decaying stump (large) of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella rostellata is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) log (large) of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudobaeospora celluloderma is saprobic on woody of debris of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes hughesii is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes subuliferus is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Radulomyces molaris is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ramaria abietina is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resupinatus applicatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resupinatus trichotis is saprobic on dead, attached branch (small) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, sessile apothecium of Rhizodiscina lignyota is saprobic on decorticate wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-7

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rhodotus palmatus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Rhogogaster punctulata grazes on leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / feeds on
Rhopalomesites tardyi feeds on dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rigidoporus ulmarius is saprobic on dead, white-rotted stump (large) of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rigidoporus undatus is saprobic on dead, sodden, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Rosellinia aquila is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, scattered perithecium of Rosellinia mammiformis is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-9
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Schizopora radula is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Scutellinia scutellata is saprobic on dead, rotten, wet wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 5-11
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Scytinostroma portentosum is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Simocybe sumptuosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / within
ovum of Sinodendron cylindricum may be found in sawdust-packed tunnel in dead wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema diademiferum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotremella perpusilla is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis nivea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis vulgaris is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis delectans is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis spumeus is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium folliculatum is saprobic on fallen branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 3-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium leptosporum is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporoschisma dematiaceous anamorph of Sporoschisma juvenile is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Steccherinum fimbriatum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria atriseda is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria basitricha is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella crystallina is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella dubia is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella subhyalina is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo vespa grazes on leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
fruitbody of Tomentella atrovirens may be found on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes hirsuta is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes pubescens is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora praefocata is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial but short foot immersed in bark apothecium of Triblidium octosporum is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichocladium dematiaceous anamorph of Trichocladium opacum is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Trichoderma anamorph of Trichoderma polysporum is saprobic on wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tricholomopsis rutilans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, gregarious perithecium of Trichosphaeria pilosa is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained twig of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tubaria confragosa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Helicosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Tubeufia cerea is saprobic on dead bark of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 4-10

Plant / resting place / on
Tubulicium vermiferum may be found on live trunk of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis regificus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella helicospora is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula erythropus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula lutescens is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
sclerotial fruitbody of Typhula phacorrhiza is saprobic on damp, dead, decayed leaf of litter of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula setipes is saprobic on damp, dead, decayed leaf of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Typhula spathulata is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of debris of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, grouped in circles perithecium of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium of Valsa ceratosperma is saprobic on branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, sessile apothecium of Velutarina rufo-olivacea is saprobic on dead branch of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: 1-12 (good condition: 8)

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Spilocaea dematiaceous anamorph of Venturia fraxini causes spots on fading leaf of Fraxinus
Remarks: season: late summer-autumn

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Virgaria dematiaceous anamorph of Virgaria nigra is saprobic on bark of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Virgariella dematiaceous anamorph of Virgariella atra is saprobic on rotten wood of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Volvariella bombycina is saprobic on dead stump (large) of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Xenasma pruinosum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Xenasma pulverulentum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Fraxinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erect stroma of Xylaria hypoxylon is saprobic on old stump of Fraxinus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Xylohypha dematiaceous anamorph of Xylohypha nigrescens is saprobic on dead wood of Fraxinus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, subiculate perithecium of Zigno is saprobic on decorticate, dead branch of Fraxinus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:230Public Records:73
Specimens with Sequences:207Public Species:28
Specimens with Barcodes:201Public BINs:0
Species:37         
Species With Barcodes:37         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Fraxinus

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Fraxinus

European Ash in flower
Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves

Fraxinus /ˈfræksɨnəs/[2] is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also meant "spear" in their respective languages.[3] The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of three), and mostly pinnately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as keys or helicopter seeds, are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants;[4] if grown as an ornamental and both sexes are present, ashes can cause a considerable litter problem with their seeds. Rowans or Mountain Ashes have leaves and buds superficially similar to those of true ashes but they are unrelated and belong to the genus Sorbus in the rose family.

Selected species[edit]

Eastern North America
Western and southwestern North America
Western Palearctic (Europe, north Africa and southwest Asia)
Eastern Palearctic (central and east Asia)

Ecology[edit]

Ash is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths)—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on ashes.

Threats[edit]

Canker on an Ash tree in North Ayrshire, Scotland
Emerald ash borer

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia via solid wood packing material in the late 1980s to early 1990s. It has killed tens of millions of trees in 15 states in the United States and adjacent Ontario in Canada. It threatens some 7 billion ash trees in North America. Research is being conducted to determine if three native Asian wasps, who are natural predators of EAB could be used as a biological control for the management of EAB populations in the United States. The public is being cautioned not to transport unfinished wood products, such as firewood, to slow the spread of this insect pest.[7]

The European ash, Fraxinus excelsior, has been affected by the fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, causing ash dieback[8] in a large number of trees since the mid-1990s, particularly in eastern and northern Europe.[9][10] The disease has infected about 90% of Denmark's ash trees.[11] At the end of October 2012 in the UK the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera) reported that ash dieback had been discovered in mature woodland in Suffolk, previous occurrences had been on young trees imported from Europe.[12]

Uses[edit]

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana,[13] and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior[14]), tough and very strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys and other uses demanding high strength and resilience.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact,[14] meaning it will typically perish within five years.

Woodworkers generally like the timber for its great finishing qualities. It also has good machining qualities, and is quite easy to use with nails, screws and glue.[13] Ash was commonly used for the structural members of the bodies of cars made by carriage builders. Early cars had frames which were intended to flex as part of the suspension system in order to simplify construction. The Morgan Motor Company of Great Britain still manufacture sports cars with frames made from ash. It was also widely used by early aviation pioneers for aircraft construction.

It makes excellent firewood and barbecue or smoking wood. The two most economically important species for wood production are White Ash in eastern North America, and European Ash in Europe. The Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica) is widely planted as a street tree in the United States. The inner bark of the Blue Ash (F. quadrangulata) has been used as a source for a blue dye.

The leaves of ash are appreciated by cows, goats and rabbits. Cut off in the autumn the branches can be a valuable winter supply for domestic animals.

Cultural aspects[edit]

In Greek mythology, the Meliae were nymphs of the ash, perhaps specifically of the Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus), as dryads were nymphs of the oak. They appear in Hesiod's Theogony.

The ash exudes a sugary substance that, it has been suggested, was fermented to create the Norse Mead of Inspiration.[15]

In Norse mythology was Yggdrasill often seen as a giant ash tree. Many scholars are now agree that in the past an error has been made in the interpretation of the ancient writings, and that the tree is most likely an European yew (Taxus baccata). This mistake would find its origin in an alternative word for the yew tree in the Old Norse, namely Needle Ash (barraskr). In addition, ancient sources, including the Eddas, write about a vetgrønster vida which means "evergreen tree". An ash sheds its leaves in the winter, while yew trees retain their needles. The first man, Ask, was formed from the "ash tree".

Elsewhere in Europe, snakes were said to be repelled by ash leaves or a circle drawn by an ash branch. Irish folklore claims that shadows from an ash tree would damage crops. In Cheshire, it was said that ash could be used to cure warts or rickets. In Sussex the ash and elm tree were known as the Widow Maker because the large boughs would often drop without warning.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Fraxinus L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-04-03. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams, ed. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5. 
  4. ^ "Monoecious and dioecious plants". saylorplants.com. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Species Records of Fraxinus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  6. ^ "Fraxinus L.". ITIS Standard Reports. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  7. ^ "The Problem". Don't Move Firewood. Retrieved 14 October 2011. 
  8. ^ Kowalski T (2006) Chalara fraxinea sp. nov. associated with dieback of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Poland. Forest Pathology 36(4), 264-270
  9. ^ E. Halmschlager & T. Kirisits (2008). "First report of the ash dieback pathogen Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior in Austria". University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  10. ^ N. Ogris, T. Hauptman & D. Jurc (2009). "Chalara fraxinea causing common ash dieback newly reported in Slovenia". Slovenian Forestry Institute. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  11. ^ "'Ash dieback' fungus Chalara fraxinea in UK countryside". BBC. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
  12. ^ BBC News 'Ash dieback' fungus, Chalara fraxinea found in UK countryside. retrieved 25 Oct. 2012
  13. ^ a b "White Ash". Niche Timbers. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  14. ^ a b "Ash". Niche Timbers. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  15. ^ Dumont, Darl J. (Summer 1992). "The Ash Tree In Indo-European Culture". Mankind Quarterly 32 (4): 323–336. 

Bibliography[edit]

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