Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimen Records: 12
Specimens with Sequences: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Asimina is a genus of eight species of small trees or shrubs with large simple leaves and large fruit, native to eastern North America, collectively referred to as Pawpaw. The genus includes the widespread common pawpaw Asimina triloba, which bears the largest edible fruit indigenous to the continent. Pawpaws are native to 26 states of the U.S. and to Ontario in Canada. The common pawpaw is a patch-forming (clonal) understory tree found in well-drained, deep, fertile bottomland and hilly upland habitat. Pawpaws are in the same plant family (Annonaceae) as the custard-apple, cherimoya, sweetsop, ylang-ylang and soursop; the genus is the only member of that family not confined to the tropics.
The genus name Asimina was first described and named by Michel Adanson, a French naturalist of Scottish descent. The name is adapted from the Native American name assimin through the French colonial asiminier.
The leaves are alternate, obovate, entire, 20–35 cm (8–13 in) long and 10–15 cm (4–6 in) broad.
The fetid flowers of pawpaws are produced singly or in clusters of up to eight together; they are large, 4–6 cm across, perfect, with six sepals and petals (three large outer petals, three smaller inner petals). The petal color varies from white to purple or red-brown.
The fruit of the common pawpaw is a large edible berry, 5–16 cm (2–6 in) long and 3–7 cm (1.5–2.5 in) broad, weighing from 20–500 g (1–18 oz), with numerous seeds; it is green when unripe, maturing to yellow or brown. It has a flavor somewhat similar to both banana and mango, varying significantly by cultivar, and has more protein than most fruits.
Species and their distributions
- Asimina incana (W. Bartram) Exell - Woolly pawpaw. Florida and Georgia. (Annona incana W. Bartram)
- Asimina longifolia Raf. - Slimleaf pawpaw. Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
- Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash - Bigflower pawpaw. Florida (Annona obovata Willd.)
- Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Dunal - Smallflower pawpaw. Southern states from Texas to Virginia.
- Asimina pygmea (W. Bartram) Dunal - Dwarf pawpaw. Florida and Georgia.
- Asimina reticulata Shuttlw. ex Chapman - Netted pawpaw. Florida and Georgia.
- Asimina tetramera Small - Fourpetal pawpaw. Florida (Endangered)
- Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal - Common pawpaw. Extreme southern Ontario, Canada, and the eastern United States from New York west to southeast Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas. (Annona triloba L.)
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The common pawpaw is native to shady, rich bottom lands, where it often forms a dense undergrowth in the forest, often appearing as a patch or thicket of individual small slender trees.
Pawpaw flowers are insect-pollinated, but fruit production is limited since few if any pollinators are attracted to the flower's faint, or sometimes non-existent scent. The flowers produce an odor similar to that of rotting meat to attract blowflies or carrion beetles for cross pollination. Other insects that are attracted to pawpaw plants include scavenging fruit flies, carrion flies and beetles. Because of difficult pollination, some[who?] believe the flowers are self-incompatible.
Cultivation and uses
Wild-collected fruits of the common pawpaw (Asimina triloba) have long been a favorite treat throughout the tree's extensive native range in eastern North America. Fresh pawpaw fruits are commonly eaten raw; however, they do not store or ship well unless frozen. The fruit pulp is also often used locally in baked dessert recipes, with pawpaw often substituted in many banana-based recipes.
Pawpaws have never been cultivated for fruit on the scale of apples and peaches, but interest in pawpaw cultivation has increased in recent decades. However, only frozen fruit will store or ship well. Other methods of preservation include dehydration, production of jams or jellies, and pressure canning.
The pawpaw is also gaining in popularity among backyard gardeners because of the tree's distinctive growth habit, the appeal of its fresh fruit, and its relatively low maintenance needs once established. The common pawpaw is also of interest in ecological restoration plantings since this tree grows well in wet soil and has a strong tendency to form well-rooted colonial thickets.
The several other species of Asimina have few economic uses.
The earliest documentation of pawpaws is in the 1541 report of the Spanish de Soto expedition, who found Native Americans cultivating it east of the Mississippi River. Chilled pawpaw fruit was a favorite dessert of George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson planted it at his home in Virginia, Monticello. The Lewis and Clark Expedition sometimes subsisted on pawpaws during their travels. The common pawpaw was designated as the Ohio state native fruit in 2009.
- "Pawpaw Description and Nutritional Information". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- Flora of North America: Asimina triloba. "Asimina triloba". Flora of North America. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida’s Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 172–173. ISBN 1561643726.
- Werthner, William B. (1935). Some American Trees: An intimate study of native Ohio trees. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. xviii + 398 pp.
- Sargent, Charles Sprague (1933). Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico). Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company: The Riverside Press Cambridge. pp. xxvi + 910.
- "Asimina". Flora of North America. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1996-05-23). "Taxon: Annona incana W. Bartram". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1995-11-07). "Taxon: Asimina obovata (Willd.) Nash". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1994-03-31). "Taxon: Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- Guy Hand (October 12, 2011). "In Awe of the Pawpaw". Boise Weekly. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. 1996,1999, "Pawpaw"
- Sampson, B.J., J.L. McLaughlin, D.E. Wedge. 2003. PawPaw Extract as a Botanical Insecticide, 2002. Arthropod Management Tests, vol.28,p.L
- California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. 1996,1999, "Pawpaw: Asimina triloba, Annonaceae"
- Craig Summers Black (February 4, 2009 edition). "America’s forgotten fruit: The native pawpaw tastes like banana and grows close to home.". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Ohio Revised Code 5.082
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