Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Perennial, less often annual or biennial, herbs. Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Capitula radiate, terminal on stems and branches, often showy, long-pedunculate. Disk florets bisexual, brown or purple. Ray florets neuter, with yellow or red ligules. Receptacle strongly hemispherical to elongated, bearing rigid scales. Achenes 4-angled. Pappus crown-like, cup-shaped or 0.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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General Description

"Coneflower [For Olaus (Olof) Johannes Rudbeck, 1630–1702, and Olaus (Olof) Olai Rudbeck, 1660–1740, father and son, professors at Uppsala University, predecessors of Linnaeus]

Annuals, biennials, or perennials, mostly 50–300 cm (mostly fibrous rooted or rhizomatous, sometimes taprooted). Stems 1–15+, erect, branched distally, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous. Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; petiolate or sessile; blades elliptic, lanceolate, linear, oblanceolate, ovate, or spatulate, often pinnately lobed to 1–2-pinnatifid, ultimate margins entire, dentate, serrate, or coarsely toothed, faces glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous, sometimes gland-dotted. Heads radiate or discoid, borne singly or in ± corymbiform or paniculiform arrays. Involucres (early flowering) hemispheric to rotate, 15–30+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 5–20 in 1–2(–3) series (narrowly triangular to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, subequal, herbaceous, distally or throughout). Receptacles subspheric to ovoid, or conic to columnar, paleate (paleae mostly tan proximally, green to maroon distally, obovate, concave, each ± clasping a floret, apices acute to cuspidate or truncate to rounded, abaxial tips glabrous or hairy, sometimes gland-dotted, resin ducts 2–3, maroon, 1 medial and 1 near each margin; receptacles plus paleae and florets = discs, 8–80 × 5–30 mm). Ray florets 0 or 5–25+, neuter; corollas (spreading to drooping or reflexed) usually yellow to yellow-orange or bicolor (laminae often proximally maroon or each with a maroon splotch, distally yellow), sometimes wholly maroon (orangish red to maroon in R. graminifolia. Disc florets 50–800+, bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow, yellowish green, or brown-purple (often bicolor), tubes shorter than cylindric to funnelform throats, lobes 5, triangular. Cypselae (black) ± obpyramidal and 4-angled (often minutely cross rugose), faces glabrous, angles sometimes hairy; pappi 0, ± coroniform, or of 2–8+ unequal scales. x = 16, 18, 19.

Species 23 (23 in the flora): North America; introduced in Europe.

The species of Rudbeckia are distributed among three major clades or lineages. Although relationships among the lineages are not robustly resolved, the lineages are treated here as sections (as they have been traditionally). Rudbeckia hirta and sometimes other species of the genus are used in experimental studies relating to initiation of flowering and hairy root culture. Most species are rich sources of phytochemicals that may offer potential for pharmaceutical or other uses."

Urbatsch, Lowell E. and Patricia B. Cox. "Rudbeckia" in Flora of Northa America, Vol. 21, pp. 44-60, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY. 2006.

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© Urbatsch, Lowell E.; Cox, Patricia B.

Source: Compositae

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi infects and damages limp, discoloured leaf of Rudbeckia

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 30
Specimens with Sequences: 46
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species: 4
Species With Barcodes: 4
Public Records: 5
Public Species: 2
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Rudbeckia

Rudbeckia /rʌdˈbɛkiə/[1] is a plant genus of 23 species in the family Asteraceae.[2] The species are commonly called coneflowers and black-eyed-susans; all are native to North America and many species are cultivated in gardens for their showy yellow or gold flower heads.

The species are herbaceous, mostly perennial plants (some annual or biennial) growing to 0.5–3 m tall, with simple or branched stems. The leaves are spirally arranged, entire to deeply lobed, 5–25 cm long. The flowers are produced in daisy-like inflorescences, with yellow or orange florets arranged in a prominent, cone-shaped head; "cone-shaped" because the ray florets tend to point out and down (are decumbent) as the flower head opens.

A large number of species have been proposed within Rudbeckia, but most are now regarded as synonyms of the limited list given below.

Several currently accepted species have several accepted varieties. Some of them (for example the Black-eyed Susan, R. hirta), are popular garden flowers distinguished for their long flowering times. There are many cultivars of these species.

Rudbeckia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage Moth and Dot Moth.

The name was given by Carolus Linnaeus in honor of his teacher at Uppsala University, Professor Olof Rudbeck the Younger (1660-1740), and his father Professor Olof Rudbeck the Elder (1630-1702), both of whom were botanists. Rudbeckia is one of at least four genera within the flowering plant family Asteraceae whose members are commonly known as coneflowers; the others are Echinacea, Dracopis and Ratibida.

Species[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Uses[edit]

Many species are used in prairie restorations and for ornamental use. Used by domestic stock for forage. An abundance of these plants on a rangeland indicates good health.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=128840
  3. ^ a b "Species Records of Rudbeckia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  4. ^ "Rudbeckia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
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