Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs or shrublets. Stipules 0. Leaves opposite. Sepals united to form a tubular or dilated calyx which is 5-toothed with 10 principal veins. Flowers unisexual or bisexual. Petals 5, with a long narrow claw and a dilated, 2-fid or simple lamina, often with scales at the base of the lamina. Stamens 10. Styles 3 (in ours). Capsule many-seeded, opening from the apex by 3 or 6 teeth or valves. Seeds numerous.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Amauromyza flavifrons mines leaf of Silene

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis sambuci sucks sap of live root of Silene
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / gall
Brachycolus cucubali causes gall of Silene

Foodplant / gall
larva of Contarinia steini causes gall of flower bud of Silene
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked (often rather long) apothecium of Hymenoscyphus vitellinus is saprobic on dead stem of Silene
Remarks: season: 7-10

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Hypera arator grazes on flower of Silene

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Subcoccinella vigintiquattuorpunctata grazes on leaf of Silene
Other: major host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1077
Specimens with Sequences: 1163
Specimens with Barcodes: 778
Species: 213
Species With Barcodes: 203
Public Records: 545
Public Species: 123
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Silene sp2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Silene sp1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Silene

Silene is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. Containing approximately 700 species, it is the largest genus in the family.[1] Common names include campion (which is shared with the related genus Lychnis) and catchfly. Many Silene species are widely distributed, particularly in the northern hemisphere.[1]

Etymology[edit]

Silene is the feminine form of Silenus, a Greek woodland deity.[2]

Uses[edit]

Silene undulata (syn. S. capensis) is known as undlela ziimhlophe ("white paths") by the Xhosa of South Africa. A Xhosa diviner identifies and collects the plant from the wild. The roots are ground, mixed with water, and beaten to a froth, which is consumed by novice diviners during the full moon to influence their dreams. They also take it to prepare for various rituals. The root has such a strong, musky essence that the diviners who consume it exude the scent in their sweat.[3]

Scientific History[edit]

Silene was originally described by Linnaeus, and members of this genus have been the subject of research by preeminent plant ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and geneticists, including Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, Carl Correns, Herbert G. Baker, and Janis Antonovics. Many Silene species continue to be widely used study systems, particularly in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology.[4] The genus has been used as a model for understanding the genetics of sex determination for over a century. Silene species commonly contain a mixture of hermaphroditic and female (or male-sterile) individuals (gynodioecy), and early studies by Correns showed that male sterility could be maternally inherited,[5][6] an example of what is now known as cytoplasmic male sterility. Two independent groups of species in Silene have evolved separate male and female sexes (dioecy) with chromosomal sex determination that is analogous to the system found in humans and other mammals.[7][8] Silene species have also been used to study speciation, host-pathogen interactions, biological species invasions, adaptation to heavy-metal-contaminated soils, metapopulation genetics, and organelle genome evolution.[4] Notably, some members of the genus Silene hold the distinction of harboring the largest mitochondrial genomes ever identified.[9]

Selected species[edit]

If the related genera Lychnis, Melandrium, and Viscaria are included in Silene, it contains about 700 species.[1] Divisions of the genus into subgenera or sections before 2003 do not seem to be well-supported by molecular evidence.[1]

Species include:

Silene gallica var. quinquevulnera

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "36. Silene Linnaeus". Flora of North America. 
  2. ^ Quattrocchi, U. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 1999. 4: 2482. ISBN 0-8493-2678-8
  3. ^ Hirst, M. (2005). Dreams and medicines: The perspective of Xhosa diviners and novices in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 5(2) 1-22.
  4. ^ a b Bernasconi et al. 2009. Silene as a model system in ecology and evolution. Heredity. 103:5-14. PMID 19367316
  5. ^ Correns C. 1906. Die vererbung der Geshlechstsformen bei den gynodiocischen Pflanzen. Ber. Dtsch Bot. Ges. 24: 459–474.
  6. ^ Correns C. 1908. Die rolle der mannlichen Keimzellen bei der Geschlechtsbestimmung der gynodioecishen Pflanzen. Ber. Dtsch Bot. Ges. 26A: 626–701.
  7. ^ Evolution of Sex Chromosomes: The Case of the White Campion. PLoS Biol 3(1): e28. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030028
  8. ^ Mrackova M. et al. 2008. Independent origin of sex chromosomes in two species of the genus Silene. 179(2): 1129–1133. PMID 18558658
  9. ^ Sloan DB et al. 2012. Rapid Evolution of Multichromosomal Genomes in Flowering Plant Mitochondria with Exceptionally High Mutation Rates. PLoS Biol. 10: e1001241. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001241
  10. ^ Silene undulata Aiton. SANBI Red List of South African Plants.
  11. ^ a b Country Study for Biodiversity of the Republic of Macedonia (First National Report). Skopje: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning. 2003. ISBN 9989-110-15-8. 
  12. ^ "Silene ovata Pursh". USDA Plants Website. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  13. ^ "Silene paeoniensis". Flora Europaea Website. 2001. Retrieved 2010-08-27. 
  14. ^ "List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition)". COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Retrieved 2010-08-27. 

Further reading[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!