Hill et al. (2015) undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Tibicen (sometimes referred to as Lyristes) and segregated many of the species traditionally included in the genus into three new genera, more accurately reflecting inferred evolutionary relationships: Hadoa and Neotibicen for North American species (including several Mexican species) and Subsolanus for some Eurasian species. Some Mexican species formerly placed in Tibicen were moved to Diceroprocta.
- Davis, W.T. 1930. The distribution of cicadas in the United States with descriptions of new species. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 38: 53–73.
- Hill, K.B., D.C. Marshall, M.S. Moulds, and C. Simon. 2015. Molecular phylogenetics, diversification, and systematics of Tibicen Latreille 1825 and allied cicadas of the tribe Cryptotympanini, with three new genera and emphasis on species from the USA and Canada (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae). Zootaxa 3985 (2): 219–251 www.mapress.com/zootaxa/
- Sanborn, A.F. and M.S. Heath. 2012. Catalogue of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae) of Continental North America North of Mexico. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology: Monographs.; Entomological Society of America: Lanham, MD, USA. 216 pp.
- Sanborn, A.F., and P.K. Phillips. 2013. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. Diversity 5: 166-239 doi:10.3390/d5020166 (CC-BY)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:16
Specimens with Barcodes:11
Species With Barcodes:14
The genus Tibicen comprises large-bodied Cicadidae appearing in late summer or autumn. Many colloquial names exist for Tibicen, including locust, dog-day cicada, harvest fly, August dry bird, jar fly, bush cicada, and dry weather fly.
Tibicen species are the most common cicada in the United States. Unlike periodical cicadas, whose swarms occur at 13- or 17-year intervals, Tibicen species can be seen every year, hence their nickname "annual cicadas". The life-cycle of an individual, however, is more than a year. Nymphs spend two or three years feeding on tree roots before they emerge. Their annual reappearance is due to overlapping generations.
Tibicen cicadas are 1–2 inches (25–51 mm) long, with characteristic green, brown, and black markings on the top of the thorax, and tented, membranous wings extending past the abdomen. The fore pair are about twice the length of the hind pair. Adults feed using their beak to tap into the xylem of plants; nymphs feed from the xylem of roots.
Males produce loud calls in the afternoon or evening (depending on the species) to attract females. These sounds, distinctive for each species, are produced by organs below the abdomen's base. These calls range from a loud buzz to a long rattling sound.
North American species
- Tibicen auletes Germar, 1834 – Northern dusk singing cicada
- Tibicen auriferus Say, 1825 – Field cicada
- Tibicen bermudianus Verrill, 1902 – Bermuda cicada, EXTINCT (Last seen 1994)
- Tibicen bihamatus Motschulsky, 1861
- Tibicen bifidus Davis, 1916
- Tibicen canicularis Harris, 1841 – Dog-day harvestfly
- Tibicen chiricahua Davis, 1923
- Tibicen chisosensis Davis, 1934
- Tibicen cultriformis Davis, 1915 – Southwestern giant floodplain cicada
- Tibicen davisi Smith and Grossbeck, 1907 – Davis's southeastern dog-day cicada
- Tibicen dealbatus Davis, 1915 – Plains cicada
- Tibicen dorsatus Say, 1825 – Bush cicada
- Tibicen duryi Davis, 1917
- Tibicen figuratus Walker, 1858 – Fall Southeastern dog-day cicada
- Tibicen hidalgoensis Davis, 1941
- Tibicen inauditus Davis, 1917
- Tibicen latifasciatus Davis, 1915 – Coastal scissor grinder cicada
- Tibicen linnei Smith and Grossbeck, 1907 – Linne's cicada
- Tibicen longioperculus Davis, 1926
- Tibicen lyricen De Geer, 1773 – Lyric cicada
- Tibicen minor Davis, 1934
- Tibicen montezuma Distant, 1881
- Tibicen neomexicensis Stucky, 2013
- Tibicen ochreoptera Townsend, 1892
- Tibicen parallelus Davis, 1923
- Tibicen paralloides Davis, 1934
- Tibicen pronotalis Walker, 1852 – Walker's cicada
- Tibicen pruinosus Say, 1825 – Scissor grinder cicada
- Tibicen resh Haldeman, 1852
- Tibicen resonans Walker, 1850 – Southern pine barrens cicada
- Tibicen robinsonianus Davis, 1922 – Robinson's cicada
- Tibicen similaris Smith and Grossbeck, 1907 – Similar dog-day cicada
- Tibicen sugdeni Davis, 1941
- Tibicen superbus Fitch, 1855 – Superb southwestern cicada
- Tibicen texanus Metcalf, 1963
- Tibicen tibicen (Tibicen chloromerus) Linnaeus, 1758 – Swamp cicada
- Tibicen townsendii Uhler, 1905
- Tibicen tremulus Cole, 2008
- Tibicen variegatus Fabricius, 1794
- Tibicen winnemanna Davis, 1912 – Eastern scissor grinder cicada
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2013)|
Many animals feed on cicadas, which usually occurs during the final days when they become easy prey near the ground. One of the more notable predators is the cicada killer. This is a large wasp that catches the dog-day cicada. After catching and stinging the insect to paralyze it, the cicada killer carries it back to its hole and drags it underground to a chamber where it lays its eggs in the paralyzed cicada. When the eggs hatch, the wasp larvae feed on the paralyzed, but still living, cicada.
- "Cicadas of Michigan". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Cicadas of the United States and Canada East of the 100th Meridian". InsectSingers.com. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
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