Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Acrodontium dematiaceous anamorph of Acrodontium hydnicola is saprobic on dead Aesculus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Agrocybe cylindracea parasitises branch of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Brachyopa bicolor is saprobic on sap run of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Brachyopa insensilis is saprobic on sap run of Aesculus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Camposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Camposporium cambrense is saprobic on litter of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Camposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Camposporium pellucidum is saprobic on litter of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Candelabrum anamorph of Candelabrum spinulosum is saprobic on dead leaf of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara affinis is saprobic on fallen, rotting leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-7

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara cylindrosperma is saprobic on leaf litter of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / saprobe
Chytridium xilophilum is saprobic on dead, very old twig of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immerse perithecium of Coniochaeta velutina is saprobic on fallen, dead Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Crocicreas subhyalinum is saprobic on dead cupule of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / saprobe
Cylindrodendrum anamorph of Cylindrodendrum album is saprobic on dead Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedalea quercina is saprobic on hard, barely decayed wood of Aesculus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyochaeta dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyochaeta fertilis is saprobic on leaf-litter of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming slightly erumpent through small slits pseudothecia of Discosphaerina fagi is saprobic on dead leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe alphitoides parasitises live leaf of Aesculus

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous cleistothecium of Erysiphe flexuosa parasitises live leaf of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia thuretiana is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Ferdinandea is saprobic on sap run of Aesculus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Fomes fomentarius parasitises live, standing trunk of Aesculus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma resinaceum parasitises live trunk of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
pseudothecium of Guignardia aesculi is saprobic on dead, fallen, over-wintered leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hapalopilus nidulans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplariopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Haplariopsis fagicola is saprobic on dead cupule of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-11
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious apothecium of Hyaloscypha hyalina is saprobic on dead branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia pruni is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
Hypoxylon howeanum is saprobic on dead branch of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hypsizygus ulmarius is saprobic on dead, standing trunk (large) of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Kretzschmaria deusta is saprobic on dead stump of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Mallota cimbiciformis is saprobic on rot hole of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, thickly clustered perithecium of Melanopsamma pomiformis is saprobic on wood of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora britannica is saprobic on cupule of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Meripilus giganteus is saprobic on dead trunk (large) of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Myathropa florea is saprobic on rot hole of Aesculus

Plant / associate
larva of Myolepta luteola is associated with rot hole of Aesculus

Foodplant / pathogen
Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina infects and damages branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Nectria coccinea is saprobic on dead trunk of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic perithecium of Nectria pallidula is saprobic on dead twig of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 8-1

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria peziza is saprobic on dead, often rotten stump of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 8-12

Foodplant / saprobe
Myrothecium dematiaceous anamorph of Nectria ralfsii is saprobic on dead, cut or fallen branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nitschkia cupularis is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nitschkia grevillei is saprobic on dead branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-3

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nitschkia parasitans is associated with dead branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oxyporus latemarginatus is saprobic on dead, fallen usually decayed, white rotten trunk (large) of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
imbricate or clustered fruitbody of Panellus serotinus is saprobic on dead Aesculus
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panus conchatus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora nuda is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula cinnamomea is saprobic on wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Phialina lachnobrachya is saprobic on dead leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella grisella is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Aesculus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phragmocephala dematiaceous anamorph of Phragmocephala elliptica is saprobic on dead branch of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous conidial anamorph of Phyllactinia guttata parasitises live leaf of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus dryinus is saprobic on live, standing trunk of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus pulmonarius is saprobic on dead wood of Aesculus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Plicatura crispa is saprobic on dead wood of Aesculus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus podospileus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Prunus Necrotic Ringspot virus causes spots on live leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pulvinaria regalis sucks sap of live branch of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza petiolaris is saprobic on petiole of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rhodotus palmatus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Rigidoporus ulmarius is saprobic on dead, white-rotted stump (large) of Aesculus

Foodplant / parasite
Sawadaea bicornis parasitises live leaf of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, soon disintegrating apothecium of Sclerophora pallida is saprobic on dead root bark of Aesculus
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serpula himantioides is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Aesculus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis carneogrisea is saprobic on dead wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis delectans is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Aesculus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Strawberry Latent Ringspot virus causes spots on live leaf of Aesculus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes gibbosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Aesculus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes ochracea is saprobic on dead wood of Aesculus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Volvariella bombycina is saprobic on dead stump (large) of Aesculus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Zeuzera pyrina feeds within live bud of Aesculus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 138
Specimens with Sequences: 153
Specimens with Barcodes: 97
Species: 16
Species With Barcodes: 16
Public Records: 68
Public Species: 15
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Aesculus

For the Ancient Greek playwright, see Aeschylus.
Aesculus glabra Ohio buckeye
Flower of Aesculus x carnea, the red Horse Chestnut

The genus Aesculus (/ˈɛskjʊləs/[1] or /ˈskjʊləs/) comprises 13–19 species of trees and shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with 6 species native to North America and 7–13 species native to Eurasia; there are also several hybrids. Aesculus exhibits a classical arcto-Tertiary distribution.[a] The genus has traditionally been treated in the ditypic family Hippocastanaceae along with Billia,[3] but recent phylogenetic analysis of morphological[4] and molecular data[5] has caused this family, along with the Aceraceae (Maples and Dipteronia), to be included in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae).

Linnaeus named the genus Aesculus after the Roman name for an edible acorn. Common names for these trees include "buckeye" and "horse chestnut". Some are also called white chestnut or red chestnut (as in some of the Bach flower remedies). In Britain, they are sometimes called conker trees because of their link with the game of conkers, played with the seeds, also called conkers. Aesculus seeds were traditionally eaten, after leaching, by the Jōmon people of Japan over about four millennia, until 300 AD.[6]

All parts of the buckeye or horse chestnut tree are extremely toxic, including the nut-like seeds.[7] [8] The toxin affects the nervous system, causing paralysis and death. The USDA notes that the toxicity is due to saponin aescin and glyside aesculin, with alkaloids possibly contributing.[9] Native Americans used to crush the seeds and the resulting mash was thrown into still or sluggish waterbodies to stun or kill fish. [10][11] They would then boil and drain (leach) the fish at least three times in order to dilute the toxin's effects. New shoots from the seeds also have been known to kill grazing cattle.

Description[edit]

Aesculus species have stout shoots with resinous, often sticky, buds; opposite, palmately divided leaves, often very large—to 65 cm (26 in) across in the Japanese horse chestnut Aesculus turbinata. The seeds of the Aesculus are traditionally used in a game called conkers in Europe. Species are deciduous or evergreen. Flowers are showy, insect- or bird-pollinated, with four or five petals fused into a lobed corolla tube, arranged in a panicle inflorescence. Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days. The fruit matures to a capsule, 2–5 cm (25321 3132 in) diameter, usually globose, containing one to three seeds (often erroneously called a nut) per capsule. Capsules containing more than one seed result in flatness on one side of the seeds. The point of attachment of the seed in the capsule (hilum) shows as a large circular whitish scar. The capsule epidermis has "spines" (botanically: prickles) in some species, while other capsules are warty or smooth. At maturity, the capsule splits into three sections to release the seeds.[12][13][14]

The species of Aesculus include:

Cultivation[edit]

The most familiar member of the genus worldwide is the common horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum. The yellow buckeye Aesculus flava (syn. A. octandra) is also a valuable ornamental tree with yellow flowers, but is less widely planted. Among the smaller species, the bottlebrush buckeye Aesculus parviflora also makes a very interesting and unusual flowering shrub. Several other members of the genus are used as ornamentals, and several horticultural hybrids have also been developed, most notably the red horse chestnut Aesculus × carnea, a hybrid between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia.

Use in alternative medicine[edit]

Aesculus has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[15] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ This designation has as a part of it a term, 'Tertiary', that is now discouraged as a formal geochronological unit by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.[2]
  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Ogg, James G.; Gradstein, F. M; Gradstein, Felix M. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78142-6. 
  3. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae I. Brittonia 9:145-171.
  4. ^ Judd, WS, RW Sanders, MJ Donoghue. 1994. Angiosperm family pairs. Harvard Papers in Botany. 1:1-51.
  5. ^ Harrington, Mark G.; Edwards, Karen J.; Johnson, Sheila A.; Chase, Mark W.; Gadek, Paul A. (Apr–Jun 2005). "Phylogenetic inference in Sapindaceae sensu lato using plastid matK and rbcL DNA sequences". Systematic Botany 30 (2): 366–382. doi:10.1600/0363644054223549. JSTOR 25064067. 
  6. ^ Harlan, Jack R. (1995). The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-521-40112-7. Harlan cites Akazawa, T & Aikens, CM, Prehistoric Hunter-Gathers in Japan (1986), Univ. Tokyo Press; and cites Aikens, CM & Higachi, T, Prehistory of Japan (1982), NY Academic Press.
  7. ^ Hall, Alan. 1976. The Wild Food Trail Guide. Second edition. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, pp.214.
  8. ^ Peterson, Lee. 1977. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, pp172.
  9. ^ Nelson, Guy. 2006. Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra Willd.). Plant Guide, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
  10. ^ Nelson, Guy. 2006. Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra Willd.). Plant Guide, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
  11. ^ Thomas, R. Dale, and Dixie B. Scogin. 1988. 100 Woody Plants of Louisiana. Contributions of the Herbarium of Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, Louisiana, pp.118.
  12. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae I. Brittonia 9:145-171
  13. ^ Hardin, JW. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae II. Brittonia 9:173-195
  14. ^ Hardin, JW. 1960. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae V, Species of the Old World. Brittonia 12:26-38
  15. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  16. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
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Aesculus indica

Description[edit source | edit]

Indian or Himalayan Horse Chestnut is an attractive tree growing to about 30 meters (100 feet) with a spread of about 12 meters (39 feet). It is hardy to -15°C (5°F), USDA zones 7-9.[1] It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphroditic and with plentiful white blossoms during May and June pollinated by bees. Its large leaves 10–20 cm long by 2–6 cm wide are also ornamental and the mature tree forms a beautiful round canopy.

Distribution[edit source | edit]

It is common along the Himalayan Lowlands, between Kashmir and Western Nepal at elevations between 900 and 3,000 metres.[2] In the British Isles it is popular in many parks and estates where it was introduced in the mid-19th century. It is also found in many parts of the USA.[1] The commercial collection of its seeds for flour production seems to have impacted on the natural distribution of this species.[citation needed]

Uses[edit source | edit]

Its leaves are used as cattle fodder in parts of Northern India. Its seeds are dried and ground into a bitter flour, called tattawakher. The bitterness is caused by saponins, which are rinsed out by thoroughly washing the flour during its preparation. The flour is often mixed with wheat flour to make chapatis[3] and also to make a halwa (Indian sweetmeat) and sometimes is served as a dalia, (a type of porridge or gruel) during fasting periods.

It is used in traditional Indian medicine, for the treatment of some skin diseases, rheumatism, as an astringent, acrid and narcotic, and in the relief of headaches.[3]

Its large leaves and flowers make it suitable for use as large-sized bonsai.[4]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b Aesculus indica Fact Sheet ST-63 http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/aesinda.pdf
  2. ^ Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 285-286. Ethnobotany of Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica) in Mandi district, http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/3963/1/IJTK%208(2)%20285-286.pdf
  3. ^ a b Plants and people of Nepal, By N. P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar, Pg. 76
  4. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Aesculus indica". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
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