Overview

Brief Summary

Achillea is a genus of flowering plants comprised of approximately 85 distinct species that are distributed across North America, Eurasia and North Africa.

Known by the common names of Yarrow or Milfoil, these strongly scented perennials have alternate leaves, which are simple to 3-pinnately dissected. For the inflorescence: heads are generally radiate, in flat-topped clusters; The ray flowers are few, white, pink, or yellow. Disk flowers are typically many, and corollae are short, white to purple or yellow. Fruits are oblong to obovate.
  • * Jepson Manual. 1993. Achillea University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, finely pinnatisect. Capitula in corymbs, heterogamous. Phyllaries many-seriate; margin scarious. Receptacular scales narrow, scarious. Ray florets female, white or pink (in ours) or yellow. Disk florets bisexual, tubular, white or yellow. Achenes strongly flattened, not ribbed; apex truncate. Pappus 0.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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General Description

"Milfoil, achillée [for Greek god Achilles, who is supposed to have used the plants to treat his wounds]

Perennials [subshrubs], 6–80 cm (usually rhizomatous, sometimes fibrous rooted or taprooted; usually aromatic). Stems 1(–4+, clustered), usually erect, branched mostly distally, glabrous or sparsely to densely lanate (hairs usually basifixed). Leaves basal (often withering before flowering) and cauline; alternate; petiolate or sessile (bases ± clasping); blades (cauline equaling basal or slightly smaller distally) linear to oblong-lanceolate, usually 1–2[–4]-pinnately lobed, ultimate margins entire, abaxial faces sparsely to densely lanate, adaxial faces glabrate to sparsely tomentose. Heads radiate [discoid], in compact to open (± flat-topped), simple or compound, corymbiform arrays [borne singly]. Involucres campanulate to hemispheric, mostly 2–3(–5+) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, 10–30 in (1–)2–3(–4) series, oblong, ovate, or oblanceolate to lanceolate (midribs conspicuous), unequal, margins and apices (pale to black) scarious. Receptacles usually flat to slightly convex, rarely conic, paleate; paleae membranous, ± folded (sometimes each with central resin duct). Ray florets [0] 3–5(–12+), usually pistillate and fertile; corollas usually white (laminae yellow at bases), sometimes pale yellow to pink or purple (tubes ± flattened), laminae orbiculate to suborbiculate (becoming reflexed). Disc florets usually (5–)15–75+, rarely 0, bisexual, fertile; corollas white to grayish or yellowish [yellow, pink], tubes ± flattened (bases ± saccate, clasping apices of cypselae), throats ± campanulate, lobes 5, ± deltate. Cypselae obcompressed, oblong to obovate (margins sometimes winged, apices rounded); ribs usually 2, lateral (sometimes plus 1 adaxial), faces glabrous (pericarps with myxogenic cells, sometimes with resin sacs; embryo sac development monosporic). x = 9.

Species ca. 115 (4 in the flora): subtropic to temperate and arctic regions of North America and Eurasia.

Centers of diversity for Achillea are in Europe and Asia. Achillea ageratum, A. distans, and A. ligustica have been reported as occurring in North America. Labels on herbarium specimens examined indicated that those reports were based on cultivated plants; there is no evidence that any of the three has become established in our flora. Achillea filipendulina may be persistent or established in California (F. Hrusa et al. 2002) and in Michigan (E. Voss 1972–1996, vol. 3).

Achillea includes aromatic herbs with diverse vegetative morphologies. Floral characters show much less variation. Some species are widely cultivated both in Eurasia and North America. Interspecific hybridization has made identifications difficult and has evidently contributed to long lists of synonyms for some species.

Plants of Achillea contain secondary metabolites with purported therapeutic and pharmacologic uses. Native Americans used the plants to treat earaches, diarrhea, and hemorrhages."

Trock, Debra Achillea millefolium” in Flora of North America, Vol. 19, p. 493. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY. 2006.

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Source: Compositae

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Asterolecanium fimbriatum causes gall of stem of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
Brachycaudus helichrysi causes gall of inflorescence of Achillea

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Cheilosia vernalis feeds on stem of Achillea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / gall
Craspedolepta nervosa causes gall of leaf of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dithryca guttularis causes gall of stem (base) of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes kiefferi causes gall of inflorescence of Achillea

Plant / resting place / on
Haplothrips setiger may be found on live flower of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Lasioptera francoisi causes gall of leaf of Achillea

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus succineus grazes on leaf of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
Macrosiphoniella millefolii causes gall of inflorescence of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Misopatha palearum causes gall of stem of Achillea

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Mordellistena parvula feeds on Achillea

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Ophiomyia curvipalpis may be found in stem of Achillea
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oxyna flavipennis causes gall of stem (base) of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Ozirhincus millefolii causes gall of inflorescence of Achillea

Foodplant / feeds on
Pseudostyphlus pillumus feeds on Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Rhopalomyia millefolii causes gall of leaf of Achillea

Foodplant / gall
larva of Rhopalomyia ptarmicae causes gall of inflorescence of Achillea

Plant / resting place / on
male of Thrips pillichi may be found on live flower of Achillea
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / miner
larva of Trypeta zoe mines leaf of Achillea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 196
Specimens with Sequences: 239
Specimens with Barcodes: 114
Species: 69
Species With Barcodes: 68
Public Records: 45
Public Species: 7
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Achillea

For other uses, see Achillea (disambiguation).

Achillea /ækɨˈlə/[2] is a genus of about 85 flowering plants, in the family Asteraceae. The common name "yarrow" is normally applied to Achillea millefolium,[3] but may also be used for other species within the genus. They occur in Europe, temperate areas of Asia, and in North America. These plants typically have frilly, hairy, aromatic leaves.

These plants show large, flat clusters of small flowers at the top of the stem. These flowers can be white, yellow, orange, pink or red.

The genus was named for the Greek mythological character Achilles. According to the Iliad, Achilles' soldiers used yarrow to treat their wounds,[4] hence some of its common names such as allheal and bloodwort.

Achillea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Achillea.

Cultivation[edit]

A number of species - notably A. filipendulina, A. millefolium, A. ptarmica, are popular garden plants.

List of species[edit]

Achillea

Gordoloba, Plumajillo, Sneezeweed, Nosebleed, Green Adder's Mouth, Soldier's Woundwort, Dog Daisy, Old-man's-pepper

Hybrids

Toxicity studies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Achillea". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 2006-02-20. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  4. ^ Jalali, Farnood Shokouhi Sabet; Tajik, Hossein, Hadian, Mojtaba (2010). "Efficacy of topical application of alcoholic extract of yarrow in the healing process of experimental burn wounds in rabbit". Comparative Clinical Pathology. doi:10.1007/s00580-010-1081-7. 
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