The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Brienheide R; Tamori M; Motokawa T; Ohtani M; Iwakoshi E; Muneoka Y; Fujita T; Minakata H; Nomoto K. 1998. Peptides controlling stiffness of connective tissue in sea cucumbers. Biological Bulletin. 194: 253-259.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. xi + 390
  • Koob TJ; Koob-Edmunds MM; Trotter JA. 1999. Cell-derived stiffening and plasticizing factors in sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) dermis. Journal of Experimental Biology. 202: 2291-2301.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. v. 1 (pt 2): 533-1327
  • Paulay, G. (2015). Holothuria Linnaeus, 1767. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
  • Szulgit G. 2007. The echinoderm collagen fibril: a hero in the connective tissue research of the 1990s. BioEssays. 29: 645-653.
  • Tipper JP; Lyons-Levy G; Atkinson MAL; Trotter JA. 2003. Purification, characterization and cloning of tensilin, the collagen-fibril binding and tissue-stiffening factor from Cucumaria frondosa dermis. Matrix Biology. 21: 625-635.
  • Yamada A; Tamori M; Iketani T; Oiwa K; Motokawa T. 2010. A novel stiffening factor inducing the stiffest state of holothurian catch connective tissue. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 3416-3422.


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