occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations, but breeds in a single nation
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)) Breeding range encompasses a narrow strip (100 mi. by less than 20 mi.) along Gulf coast from Baldwin County, Alabama, to Bay County, Florida.
Length: 14 cm
Weight: 9 grams
Differs from subspecies DOMINICA of the U.S. Atlantic states in having a bill that is conspicuously slenderer; differs from subspecies FLAVESCENS (not mentioned by AOU 1957) in having a white rather than pale yellow breast and belly; differs from subspecies ALBILORA in having yellow supraloral area (rather than mainly white) and a longer, more slender bill (Sutton 1951).
Comments: Pine forest, sycamore-bald cypress swamp, riparian woodland, live oak woodland. In migration and winter in various woodland, scrub, brush, and thicket situations, but most often in pine woodland if available (AOU 1983). Based on other subspecies: winters either in inland pines or coastal palms; often in areas of human habitation; prefers semi-open, old second growth, thinned woodland (Stiles and Skutch 1989). BREEDING: Nest in Spanish moss (TILLANDSIA USNEOIDES) if available, otherwise on horizontal branch, at heights generally between 3 and 25 m (up to 36 m) above ground.
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Generally a long-distance migrant throughout the range of the species. Migratory status in northern Florida and adjacent areas?
Comments: Eats insects and spiders; usually forages high in trees along trunks and branches, also flycatches.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80
1000 - 10,000 individuals
Life History and Behavior
Clutch size 4-5 (usually 4). Two broods per year are likely in the south. Incubation probably 12-13 days, by female.
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N3B,NNRN : N3B: Vulnerable - Breeding, NNRN: Unranked - Nonbreeding
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Very small total range in a rapidly developing area. Population may be declining.
Other Considerations: USFWS breeding bird surveys indicate sharp decrease after 1971 for this species in Florida.
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%
Comments: Appears stable in the center of abundance (Choctawhatchee Bay) (Kale 1978), but declines have been noted in the western Florida panhandle (Duncan 1988).
Degree of Threat: B : Moderately threatened throughout its range, communities provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure of the community over the long-term, but are apparently recoverable
Comments: Upland communities subject to development, which is becoming rampant along Gulf coast. Pesticide use is thought to be a factor adversely affecting insectivorous birds.
Biological Research Needs: Clear up taxonomic questions.
Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed
Comments: Unknown. Some coastal state and federal lands may protect some occurrences.
Needs: Acquire/protect approximately ten large woodland tracts with occurrences, especially around Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida (e.g., near Freeport). Insure protection on state/federal lands if present. Stop widespread development of Gulf coast. Avoid pesticide use.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Lovette et al. 2010) indicate that all species formerly placed in Dendroica, one species formerly placed in Wilsonia (citrina), and two species formerly placed in Parula (americana and pitiayumi) form a clade with the single species traditionally placed in Setophaga (ruticilla). The generic name Setophaga has priority for this clade (AOU 2011).
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