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BiologyOn sandy, muddy or gravelly bottoms, from a few meters to about 150 m. Rest on the bottom, often buried with eyes and tip of first dorsal fin exposed (Ref. 9988). At night they swim around freely, even pelagically (Ref. 35388). Feed on small invertebrates and fishes; chiefly nocturnal. Oviparous, eggs and larval stages pelagic (Ref. 4675). There are dark markings along the scales; the anterior dorsal fin is black and contains venomous spines. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be pan-fried, broiled, boiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Spawning takes place in June and August, pelagic eggs are 1 mm (Ref. 35388). Also Ref. 57406.