This is a large family of beetles consisting of several subfamilies. Long-Horned Beetles are medium to large-sized. The adults are rather flat, long, and oval or slightly angular. They are often black or brown, but also exhibit other colors, depending on the species. The antennae are quite long, sometimes even longer than the length of the body. The larvae bore round tunnels through the wood of various species of trees and shrubs, and can cause considerable damage. Some species of Long-Horned Beetles visit flowers to feed on pollen or nectar, particularly in the subfamily to be described next. Lepturinae (Flower Longhorns): These are medium-sized beetles with wing-covers that are broad near the head, but taper gradually toward the posterior. The pronotum and head are narrow and flexible, while the antennae are long. Flower Longhorns are often colorful, sometimes iridescent green, black and yellow, black and red, etc. The adults are common visitors to flowers, feeding on pollen or nectar. The larvae feed on the moist dead wood of various trees and various human artifacts, the latter including wooden poles, cross-ties, and fences that are not treated with insect-resistant chemicals.
adult of Cerambycidae pollenates or fertilises flower of Dactylorhiza fuchsii
Other: major host/prey
Based on studies in:
USA: North Carolina (Forest, Plant substrate)
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
- H. E. Savely, 1939. Ecological relations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. Ecol. Monogr. 9:321-385, from pp. 335, 353-56, 377-85.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||12,610||Public Records:||1,423|
|Specimens with Sequences:||8,518||Public Species:||245|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||6,499||Public BINs:||222|
|Species With Barcodes:||1,396|
Locations of barcode samples
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2011)|
The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body. In various members of the family, however, the antennae are quite short (e.g., Neandra brunnea, figured below) and such species can be difficult to distinguish from related beetle families such as Chrysomelidae. The family is large, with over 20,000 species described, slightly more than half from the Eastern Hemisphere. Several are serious pests. The larvae, called roundheaded borers, bore into wood, where they can cause extensive damage to either living trees or untreated lumber (or, occasionally, to wood in buildings; the old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus, being a particular problem indoors). A number of species mimic ants, bees, and wasps, though a majority of species are cryptically colored. The rare titan beetle (Titanus giganteus) from northeastern South America is often considered the largest (though not the heaviest, and not the longest including legs) insect, with a maximum known body length of just over 16.7 centimetres (6.6 in).
As with many large families, different authorities have tended to recognize many different subfamilies, or sometimes split subfamilies off as separate families entirely (e.g., Disteniidae, Oxypeltidae, and Vesperidae); there is thus some instability and controversy regarding the constituency of the Cerambycidae. There are few truly defining features for the group as a whole, at least as adults, as there are occasional species or species groups which may lack any given feature; the family and its closest relatives, therefore, constitute a taxonomically difficult group, and relationships of the various lineages are still poorly understood.
There are eight subfamilies:
- Cerambycinae Latreille, 1802
- Dorcasominae Lacordaire, 1869
- Lamiinae Latreille, 1825
- Lepturinae Latreille, 1802
- Necydalinae Latreille, 1825
- Parandrinae Blanchard, 1845
- Prioninae Latreille, 1802
- Spondylidinae Audinet-Serville, 1832
Notable genera and species
- Moneilema – cactus longhorn beetles
- Anoplophora chinensis – citrus long-horned beetle
- Phymatodes nitidus
- Anoplophora glabripennis – Asian long-horned beetle
- Tetraopes tetrophthalmus – red milkweed beetle
- Desmocerus californicus dimorphus – valley elderberry longhorn beetle
- Petrognatha gigas – giant African longhorn
- Rosalia alpina – Rosalia longhorn
- Aridaeus thoracicus – tiger longicorn (Australia)
- "Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- Max Barclay (2010). "Titanus giganteus Linnaeus (1771)". Natural History Museum. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- Sergio Antonio Vanin & Sergio Ide (2002). "Classificação comentada de Coleoptera" [An annotated classification of the Coleoptera] (PDF). In C. Costa, S. A. Vanin, J. M. Lobo & A. Melic. Proyecto de Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática PrIBES 2002. Monografias Tercer Milenio (M3M) (in Portuguese) 3. pp. 193–206. ISBN 84-922495-8-7.
- Miguel A. Monné (2006). "Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Neotropical Region. Part III. Subfamilies Parandrinae, Prioninae, Anoplodermatinae, Aseminae, Spondylidinae, Lepturinae, Oxypeltinae, and addenda to the Cerambycinae and Lamiinae" (PDF excerpt). Zootaxa 1212: 1–244. ISBN 1-877407-96-8.
- Arnett, et al. (2002) American Beetles, Vol. 2. CRC Press, 861 pp.
- Patrice Bouchard, Yves Bousquet, Anthony E. Davies, Miguel A. Alonso-Zarazaga, John F. Lawrence, Chris H. C. Lyal, Alfred F. Newton, Chris A. M. Reid, Michael Schmitt, S. Adam Ślipiński, Andrew B. T. Smith (2010). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys 88: 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. PMC 3088472. PMID 21594053.