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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits seaward coral (Ref. 58652) and rocky reefs (Ref. 9710); inner reefs with rich coral habitat (Ref. 48636). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 3488). Caught mainly with traps, nets and other types of artisanal gear.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found from Ryukyu Islands to eastern Indonesia and the Great Barrier Reef, east to Samoa, and Palau.
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Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands to Australia. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
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Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and western Mascarenes east to Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia).
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 310 mm ---
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Max. size

31.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)); max. published weight: 700 g (Ref. 3488)
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Diagnostic Description

Female is dark-brown but the tail is dark red. Male has yellow cheek and yellow area on sides near tail that are bright underwater (Ref. 48636).
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Type Information

Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 163938
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 324, pl. XXXIII.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 164634
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 314-315, fig. 55.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51831
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 324, pl. XXXIII.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51830
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 324, pl. XXXIII.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51822
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 324, pl. XXXIII.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51836
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 314-315, fig. 55.
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Paratype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51823
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Samoa, Apia., Upolu, Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 314-315, fig. 55.
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Holotype for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51754
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: American Samoa: Tutuila Island, Pago Pago, Tutuila, American Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Holotype: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 324, pl. XXXIII.
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Type for Chlorurus japanensis
Catalog Number: USNM 51748
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): D. Jordan & V. Kellogg
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: American Samoa: Tutuila Island, Pago Pago, Tutuila, American Samoa, Samoa Islands, Pacific
  • Type: Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906. Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 25 (for 1905): 314-315, fig. 55.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is a small excavating parrotfish. It is found solitary or in small groups on reef fronts and in sheltered seaward and lagoon reefs to 20 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth: 2 - 20m.
From 2 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits seaward coral and rocky reefs. Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 9710).
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Diseases and Parasites

Iridovirosis. Viral diseases
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chlorurus japanensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.

Reviewer/s
McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is a small and widespread parrotfish. It is not targeted in any particular fishery and occurs in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This species is generally rare over most of its range but can be locally abundant.

Abundance estimates in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea record 7.8 individuals per 1,000 m2. In the northern Great Barrier Reef, the southern limit of this species' range, estimates record <.1 individuals per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). It is occasionally found in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
In some parts of its range in the Coral Triangle region, this species it locally threatened by fishing and habitat loss from from coastal development, pollution and climate change.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
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Disclaimer

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