Overview

Comprehensive Description

Liza ramado (Risso, 1810)

Sea of Marmara : 17800-862 (1 spc.), Mayis 2005 , Beykoz , N. Meriç . Inland water: 17800-629 (1 spc.), 25.05.1981 , Kuecuekcekmece Lagoon , Istanbul , trammel net , N. Meriç ; 17800-353 (1 spc.), 25.05.1981 , Kuecuekcekmece Lagoon , Istanbul , trammel net , N. Meriç .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 48-48, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

A pelagic species occurring near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers; often in polluted waters (Ref. 59043). Migratory species (Ref. 51442). Spawning takes place at sea near the coast during gatherings between September and February (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). The eggs develop in the sea and juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). The adults enter the lower parts of the rivers (Ref. 51442). They live usually inshore, entering lagoons and estuaries and rivers between temperatures 8-24°C. Feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

Mediterranean, Black Sea, Azov Sea and Eastern Atlantic from Cape Verde and Senegal to southern Baltic and British Isles (not reaching northern Scotland). Migrates north during summer. Landlocked population in Fratel reservoir, Portugal. Introduced in Lake Kinneret (Israel).
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Eastern Atlantic: from the coasts of southern Norway to Morocco, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 2804, Ref. 51442). Records of its occurrence in tropical waters are based on misidentifications (Ref. 3573).
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Western Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Southern Norway to Senegal including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 4 - 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7 - 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8 - 9
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Size

Maximum size: 700 mm TL
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Max. size

70.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4645)); max. published weight: 2,900 g (Ref. 40476); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 40476)
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Diagnostic Description

Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Massive head, flattened above the eyes (Ref. 51442). Small mouth (Ref. 51442). Snout short and blunt (Ref. 51442). Two dorsal fins well-separated, the first with 4 to 5 spines (Ref. 40476, Ref. 51442). Pectoral fins are placed high on the flanks (Ref. 51442). Large scales (Ref. 51442). Dorsal sides and flanks gray-colored, ventral side white (Ref. 51442).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat:
Pelagic near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers, often found in polluted waters. Spawns offshore at sea.

Biology:
Usually lives in schools. Males reproduce for the first time at 2-3 years, females at four or later. Females somewhat larger than males. Spawns several million pelagic eggs in September-December, April-July on British coast. Juveniles around 20 mm SL move to coastal lagoons and estuaries in autumn and especially winter. Juveniles feed on zooplankton until about 30 mm SL, then on benthic animals and plants. Adults filter algae, vegetal detritus and sediment.

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 30578)
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Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 13.5 - 169
  Temperature range (°C): 12.241 - 12.241
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.235 - 4.235
  Salinity (PPS): 35.415 - 35.415
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.632 - 5.632
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.247 - 0.247
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.255 - 2.255

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 13.5 - 169
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Catadromous. Migrating from freshwater to the sea to spawn, e.g., European eels. Subdivision of diadromous. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Migratory species (Ref. 51442). The eggs develop in the sea and juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). The adults enter the lower parts of the rivers (Ref. 51442). They live usually inshore, entering lagoons and estuaries and rivers between temperatures 8-24°C. Feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae. Omnivorous fish feeding on the nutrients, animals and plants on the surface of the bottom or rocks (Ref. 51442).
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Associations

Known prey organisms

Liza ramada (Chelon labrosus, Liza ramada, L. aurata) preys on:
Enteromorpha
Ulva
detritus

Based on studies in:
Portugal (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. Saldanha, Estudio Ambiental do Estuario do Tejo, Publ. no. 5(4) (CNA/Tejo, Lisbon, 1980).
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Diseases and Parasites

Heterophyes Infection. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Epitheliocystis. Bacterial diseases
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Spawning takes place at sea near the coast by gathering in groups between September and February (Ref. 51442). The eggs develop at sea (Ref. 51442). The juveniles then colonize the littoral zone and the estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults enter the lower parts of the rivers and treturn to the sea to spawn (Ref. 51442).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Liza ramado

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Liza ramado

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Liza ramada

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Liza ramada

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.

Reviewer/s
Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)

Contributor/s

Justification
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
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Population

Population
Abundant.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats known.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No information.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
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Wikipedia

Thinlip mullet

The thinlip mullet (Liza ramada) is a species of fish in the Mugilidae family. It is found in shallow European waters and is a migratory species.

Description[edit]

The thinlip mullet has an elongate body compressed laterally. The head is short and flattened and the mouth is broad with a narrow upper lip and no tubercles. There are two dorsal fins. It is steely blue above and paler beneath. The scales are large and there is no externally visible lateral line.[2]

It maximum length is around 70cm, with the common specimen being around 35cm. The largest specimens recorded weighed over three kilograms.[3]

Spawning takes place at sea, near the coast between September and February.

Distribution[edit]

The thinlip mullet is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Cape Verde and Senegal north to the Baltic Sea. It is also found in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Azov Sea.[1]

It is a pelagic species, usually occurring inshore, entering lagoons and estuaries and rivers. It feeds on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms. It is common between 0-10m, rarely deeper than that.

Fishing[edit]

Thinlip mullet is commercially caught mainly with gill nets, trammel nets, beach seines and sometimes cast nets. In recreational fishing, spearguns and rods and reels with floats are used. Hooks are baited with bread, various pastes, fish guts and similar baits. One must be careful when pulling and reeling in larger mullets since hooks can sometimes hook only soft lips and catch can be easily lost.

Cuisine[edit]

Meat is white, tender and very soft. Since Thinlip mullet can be found in polluted waters too, taste and quality of the meat vary. Specimen caught in clear waters have great taste and can be prepared in many ways. It is the best barbequed with some olive oil and lemon juice and as part of mixed fish stew with boiled potatoes and/or polenta.

References[edit]

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