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Little has been described of basic biology of Lophodolos acanthognathus, a species known from fewer than 160 specimens. Metamorphosed females of L. acanthognathus are vertically distributed between 650 m and an unknown lower limit. Nearly all specimens larger than 30 mm have been captured by nets fished below 1000 m; about half of these were captured by nets fished below 1500 m.
Lophodolos acanthognathus is known from the Western Atlantic Ocean, where it extends from off Greenland and Iceland at about 65°N, to the equator (including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea). Elsewhere, it is known from scattered records in the Central South Atlantic, the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean, the South China and Celebes seas, and in the Eastern Pacific.