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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Sarda sarda ZBK (Bloch, 1793)

Black Sea : 23400-516 (1 spc.), 10.07.1957 ; 23400-450 (1 spc.), 10.07.1957 ; 23400-461 (7 spc.), 10.07.1957 . Sea of Marmara : 23400-457 (9 spc.), 12.07.1959 , Fil Burnufish trap , Bosphorus ; 23400-459 (20 spc.), 10.08.1959 , Fil Burnufish trap , Bosphorus ; 23400-460 (3 spc.), 09.07.1959 , Fil Burnufish trap , Bosphorus ; 23400-458 (20 spc.), 12.07.1959 , Fil Burnufish trap , Bosphorus .

  • Nurettin Meriç, Lütfiye Eryilmaz, Müfit Özulug (2007): A catalogue of the fishes held in the Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Hydrobiology Museum. Zootaxa 1472, 29-54: 51-51, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:428F3980-C1B8-45FF-812E-0F4847AF6786
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Biology

Epipelagic, neritic and schooling species that may enter estuaries. Known to be cannibalistic, adults prey on small schooling fishes, invertebrates like squid and shrimps and can swallow relatively large prey. Eggs and larvae pelagic (Ref. 6769). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned and frozen (Ref. 9987). Able to adapt to different temperatures 12° to 27°C and salinities 14 to 39 (Ref. 36731).
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Distribution

Range Description

The range of Sarda sarda extends from Norway to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea in the eastern Atlantic, and from Nova Scotia to the northern Gulf of Mexico in the western Atlantic. While it generally does not appear in the Caribbean Sea, it has been found in Colombia and Venezuela (Collette and Nauen 1983). This species has not been recorded in northeast and central Brazil but occurs in south Brazil to Argentina.

Report from the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) also list this species from the Lesser Antilles north to the US Virgin Islands (Oxenford pers. comm. 2010), but these records need to be verified (Collette pers. comm. 2010).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Nova Scotia to Florida and northern Gulf of Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Eastern Atlantic: Oslo, Norway to Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico; then from Colombia, Venezuela, and south of the Amazon River to northern Argentina; apparently absent from most of the Caribbean Sea.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean.
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Eastern Atlantic: Oslo, Norway to Port Elizabeth, South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black seas. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico; from Colombia, Venezuela, and south of the Amazon River to northern Argentina; apparently absent from most of the Caribbean Sea.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C., 1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Frimodt, C., 1995; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 20 - 23; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 18; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 14 - 17; Vertebrae: 50 - 55
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Size

Maximum size: 914 mm FL
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Max. size

91.4 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 168)); max. published weight: 11.0 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 29114)
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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to 91 cm FL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 8,300 g.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C., 1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Frimodt, C., 1995; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Diagnostic Description

Description

Occurs in water temperatures between 12° to 27°C and salinities between 14 and 39 0/00 S. Often forms schools near the surface in inshore waters. Known to be cannibalistic, adults prey on small schooling fishes, invertebrates like squid and shrimps and can swallow relatively large prey. Utilized fresh, dried/salted, smoked, canned and frozen (Ref. 9987).
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Mouth moderately large. Laminae of olfactory rosette 21-39. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body completely covered with very small scales posterior to the corselet. Swim bladder absent. Spleen large. Liver with elongate left and right lobe and short middle lobe. Oblique dorsal stripes with a greater angle than in other species of Sarda.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

This species is a small epipelagic, neritic species that occurs in schools. It sometimes enters estuaries and has a depth range of 0–200 m. It can adapt to gradual but not sudden changes in the environment and may occur in water temperatures between 12 and 27°C and salinities between 14 and 39. It preys upon sardines, squid, anchovy, mackerel and other small fishes (Collette 2003). This species is migratory (Sabates and Recasens 2001) and spawning season and size of maturity varies between regional populations (Valeiras and Abad 2006). In most parts of the Mediterranean, it spawns between May and July but off Algeria spawning extends to July. In the northwestern Atlantic, it spawns in June and July.

The all-tackle game fish record is of an 8.3 kg fish caught off Faial Island in the Azores in 1953 (IGFA 2011).


Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Pelagic species, found at depths of 80- 200 m, may enter estuaries.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 80 - 200 m (Ref. 5377)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 877 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 796 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 80000
  Temperature range (°C): 2.459 - 27.580
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.096 - 25.946
  Salinity (PPS): 33.138 - 36.994
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.721 - 6.956
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.041 - 1.688
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.732 - 25.692

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 80000

Temperature range (°C): 2.459 - 27.580

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.096 - 25.946

Salinity (PPS): 33.138 - 36.994

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.721 - 6.956

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.041 - 1.688

Silicate (umol/l): 0.732 - 25.692
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 80 - 200m.
From 80 to 200 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
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Pelagic; brackish; marine; depth range 80 - 200 m. Schooling species. May enter estuaries.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C., 1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Frimodt, C., 1995; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Trophic Strategy

Juveniles and adults are known to be cannibalistic, adults prey primarily on small schooling fishes, the choice of species depending on the locality.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Cannibalistic. Also consume small schooling fishes, invertebrates like squid and shrimps. Are capable of swallowing relatively large prey.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C., 1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Frimodt, C., 1995; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Diseases and Parasites

Unitubulotestes Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Tormopsolus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Tetrarhynchus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Tentacularia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Tentacularia Disease of Coryphaena. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Scolex Infestation (Scolex pleuronectis). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Rhipidocotyle Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Opecoelides Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Nematobothrium Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Lecithochirum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Lacistorhynchus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Hirudinella clavata Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Hexostoma thynni Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Hexostoma pricei Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Grillotia erinaceus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Dinurus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Caligus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Bucephalopsis Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Atalostrophion Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Aponurus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Yoshida, H.O. 1980 Synopsis of biological data on bonitos of the genus Sarda. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 432. FAO Fish. Synop. No. 118. 50 p. (Ref. 238)
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds on fishes and invertebrates including squids and shrimps, cannibalistic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Spawning occurs from May to July in the Mediterranean. Eggs and larvae planktonic.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C., 1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Frimodt, C., 1995; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sarda sarda

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTCATCCCCCTAATG---ATTGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAATATGAGCTTTTGACTCCTTCCCCCTTCTTTCCTTCTACTCCTTGCCTCTTCTGGAGTCGAAGCCGGTGCCGGAACCGGTTGAACAGTCTACCCGCCCCTTGCTGGTAACCTAGCTCACGCCGGAGCATCAGTTGACTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTACATTTAGCAGGTGTTTCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTCATCACAACAATCATTAATATGAAACCCGCAGCTATTTCTCAATATCAAACACCCCTATTTGTATGAGCTGTCCTAATTACAGCCGTTCTTCTCCTACTATCGCTACCAGTTCTTGCCGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTACTGACGGACCGAAACCTAAATACAACCTTTTTCGACCCTGCAGGCGGAGGTGATCCCATCCTTTACCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTATACATTCTTATTCTTCCCGGCTTCGGAATAATCTCCCATATCGTTGCCTACTACTCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGTTACATGGGTATGGTGTGAGCAATGATGGCCATCGGCCTTCTAGGGTTCATCGTATGAGCCCATCACATGTTTACAGTAGGAATGGACGTAGACACACGAGCCTATTTCACATCCGCAACTATAATTATTGCAATTCCAACTGGTGTAAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTT---GCAACTCTTCACGGAGGT---GCCGTAAAATGAGAAACTCCTCTTTTATGAGCCATCGGCTTTATTTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGAGGTTTAACAGGAATTGTCCTAGCCAATTCATCCCTAGACATTGTCCTCCATGACACCTATTACGTCGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTA---CTATCTATGGGAGCCGTCTTCGCCATCGTTGCT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GCC
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sarda sarda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 24
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Amorim, A., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K., Dooley, J., Fox, W., Fredou, F., Fritzsche, R., Graves, J., Hazin, F., Herdson, D., Juan Jorda, M.J., Leite, N., Lessa, R., Matsuura, K., Minte-Vera, C., Nelson, J., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H. & Travassos, P.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Beresford, A., Cherney, A., Dewhurst, N., Ram, M., Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.

Justification
This is a very widespread species that is fairly fast growing and abundant in many areas. It has been caught in both commercial and recreational fisheries for a long period of time with no evident overall population declines. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2010.4)
  • 2010
    Least Concern
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
Sarda sarda is considered to be abundant in many localities. FAO statistics (2008) show that landings have fluctuated with no apparent increasing or decreasing trends between around 21,000 mt and 84,000 mt between 1996 and 2006. This pattern extends as far back as 1950.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Sarda sarda is harvested in various parts of its range, with the most important fishery being that in the Mediterranean and Black Seas (FAO 2008). Turkey and Mexico landed the highest tonnage of this species: 17,900 t and 2,314 t respectively. Oray et al. (2004) have noted that the majority of fish landed in Turkey are below mature size, indicating that the stock will be unable to renew or sustain itself long-term. This species comprises an important fishery in Argentina (Hansen 1987).
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Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
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Wikipedia

Atlantic bonito

Bonito del Norte is the Spanish name for Thunnus alalunga

The Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda is a large mackerel-like fish of the family Scombridae. It is common in shallow waters of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea, where it is an important commercial and game fish.

Contents

Description

Atlantic bonito belong to a group which have the dorsal fins very near, or separated by a narrow interspace. It has the body completely scaled with those scales in the pectoral fin area and the lateral line usually larger in size. Bonitos (fishes in the genus Sarda) differ from tuna by their compressed bodies, their lack of teeth on the roof of the mouth, and certain differences in colouration.

Atlantic bonito share Atlantic waters with the striped bonito, Sarda orientalis (the Atlantic population of which is sometimes considered a separate species, Sarda velox). The striped bonito has been taken on the Atlantic coast as far north as Cape Cod. It is similar in its habits, but somewhat smaller than the more common Atlantic bonito. The Atlantic bonito can be distinguished from its relative by its dark oblique stripes on the back and with a maxillary only about half as long as the head; whereas the striped bonito has striping on its topside nearly horizontal and a maxillary more than half the length of the head.

Atlantic bonito grow up to 75 cm (30 in) and weigh 5-6 kg (10 to 12 pounds) at this size. The world record is 18 pounds and 4 ounces, and was caught in the Azores.[1]

Habits

It is a strong swimmer. Normally it travels in fairly large schools and is common offshore in the vicinity of New York City where it is known as "skipjack" because of its habit of jumping from the water. (However, the name "skipjack" more commonly refers to the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis.) The spawning season is June, and specimens 12-15 cm (5-6 inches) long are taken in September off Long Island.

Food

Atlantic bonito eat mackerel, menhaden, alewives, silversides, sand lance, and other fishes, as well as squid.

Fishing technique

Bonito is often captured by tuna fishermen when trolling for bigger game. Also it is taken in larger numbers in pound nets. Thought by most fishermen[who?] to be inferior to tuna as a food fish, possibly because of the greater oiliness, it is sometimes used as bait.

As food

Bonito is a popular food fish in the Mediterranean; its flesh is similar to tuna and mackerel, and its size is intermediate between the two.[2]

Bonito under 1 kg (2.2 lb) or so (called palamut in Turkish) are often grilled as steaks. Larger bonito (torik in Turkish) are cut into steaks and preserved as lakerda.[2] Bonito is also canned; but canned Bonito del Norte is not bonito, but albacore tuna.

In Algeria and Spain, it is often prepared as escabeche, which preserves it for about a week.[2] Bonito may also be baked and served cold.[3]

References

  1. ^ Brant, Ken (2005-05-02). "Atlantic Bonito". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/outdoors/fishing/news/story?page=f_enc_AtlanticBonito. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  2. ^ a b c Alan Davidson, Mediterranean Seafood, Penguin, 1972. ISBN 0-14-046174-4, p. 123
  3. ^ "Palamut papaz yahnisi", Davidson, p. 359
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