Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults feed on worms, crustaceans, insects and plant matter (Ref. 7020). Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205). Consumed locally (Ref. 42843).
  • Vari, R.P. and A.M. Williams 1987 Headstanders of the Neotropical Anostomid Genus Abramites (Pisces: Characiformes: Anostomidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 100(1):89-103. (Ref. 9743)
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Distribution

South America: Orinoco, Amazon, Paraguay, and lower Paraná River basins.
  • Garavello, J.C. and H.A. Britski 2003 Anostomidae (Headstanders). p. 71-84. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36801)
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Widespread in South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 140 mm ---
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Max. size

14.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7020))
  • Mills, D. and G. Vevers 1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 p. (Ref. 7020)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

pelagic; freshwater; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: 18
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Distinct pairs breed on densely grown weedy places (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
  • Mills, D. and G. Vevers 1989 The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey. 208 p. (Ref. 7020)
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Wikipedia

Abramites hypselonotus

Abramites hypselonotus, also called the marbled headstander or the high-backed headstander, is a member of the family Anostomidae of the order Characiformes. Under normal fish classifying rules you would gather from its upturned mouth and long streamlined body that the marbled headstander is a surface dweller. In reality marbled headstanders, like all headstanders, inhabit the middle and lower portions of the aquarium.[2] In the wild, head standers are often found face down, tail up in narrow vertical rocky fissures.[3]

Geographical distribution and habitat[edit]

The marbled headstander generally inhabits streams and rivers of the Orinoco and Amazon river systems.[4] Headstanders in general inhabit very fast flowing waters in rocky stretches of river.[3]

Physical description[edit]

Marble headstanders are generally identified by their pointed snout, diamond shaped body, brown markings on pelvic fin, wavy dark brown bands, and a dark line at the base of the caudal peduncle.
The marble headstanders full adult size is roughly 5" (13 cm).[4]

Distinguishing between sexes[edit]

Unknown

Diet and feeding behaviour[edit]

The marble headstander is a predominately herbivorous fish and as such should be given a high vegetation diet. In addition to processed food, they will readily accept, and probably enjoy lettuce leaves, and peas. They will also accept mosquito larvae and bloodworms.[3]

Aquarium care[edit]

In the aquarium the marble headstander is generally a peaceful inhabitant. They are completely docile as juveniles both towards other fish and members of their own species. Once older keep either a single headstander or a group of seven or more in a tank as they tend to fight amongst themselves in smaller groups. They are still generally peaceful towards other fish.
Keep marble headstanders in a rocky, heavily planted aquarium with many cracks and crevices for them to explore. Note: if there is not enough vegetation in its diet, it will devour aquarium plants. On the other hand you can use this to your advantage if you want to set up a "self-sustaining aquarium" (Please keep in mind this is not an easy task. Do not just throw a bunch of plants in and think it will be fine).[3]

Temperature, pH, and salinity[edit]

These fish can tolerate a pH from 6-7.5, but prefer slightly acidic water. They like soft water ranging from 2-15 dH, and require a temperature of 73-82°F (23-28°C).[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=163179
  2. ^ Eyewitness Handbooks Aquarium Fish The visual guide to more than 500 marine and freshwater fish varieties, by Dick Mills copyright 1993 page 84
  3. ^ a b c d The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Aquarium Fish & Fish Care, by Mary Bailey & Gina Sandford copyright 1999 page 187
  4. ^ a b Eyewitness Handbooks Aquarium Fih The visual guide to more than 500 marine and freshwater fish varieties, by Dick Mills copyright 1993 page 84
  5. ^ http://fish.mongabay.com/curimatidae.htm
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