Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in clear rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 5217) and mangroves (Ref. 26340). Often forming schools (Ref. 3798). Nocturnal feeder on crabs, gastropods, starfish and annelid worms (Ref. 5521). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), Bahamas, and Yucatan, Mexico to Brazil; including the Gulf of Mexico and the entire Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 8
  • Smith, C.L. 1997 National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. (Ref. 26938)
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Size

Maximum size: 360 mm TL
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Max. size

36.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251))
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Diagnostic Description

Pale gray above; belly darker gray. Yellow stripes along side; bronze-yellow stripes and spots on head (Ref. 26938). Snout and fins primarily brownish (Ref. 13442).
  • Smith, C.L. 1997 National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. (Ref. 26938)
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Type Information

Type for Haemulon carbonarium
Catalog Number: USNM 76977
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Cuba (Havanna), Cuba, Greater Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 3 - 25 m (Ref. 9626)
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Depth range based on 280 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 168 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 17.5
  Temperature range (°C): 26.650 - 28.067
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.125 - 3.505
  Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.509
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.330 - 4.693
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.214
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 4.727

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 17.5

Temperature range (°C): 26.650 - 28.067

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.125 - 3.505

Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.509

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.330 - 4.693

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.046 - 0.214

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 4.727
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 25m.
From 3 to 25 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Found over shallow coral reefs. Found in small groups (Ref. 9710). Nocturnal feeder on crabs, gastropods, starfish and annelid worms (Ref. 5521). Good food fish.
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs in clear rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 5217) and mangroves (Ref. 26340). Nocturnal feeder on crabs, gastropods, starfish and annelid worms (Ref. 5521). Mobile invertebrates feeder (Ref. 57616).
  • Randall, J.E. 1967 Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. Miami 5:665-847.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Haemulon carbonarium

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTG---AGCCTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTTCTAGGGGAC---GATCAGATCTATAACGTAATTGTTACTGCGCATGCGTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTCTCATYGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTCGTTCCCCTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCAGATATGGCATTCCCCCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTGCTCCCCCCTTCTTTCCTACTCCTCCTCGCCTCTTCAGGGGTAGAAGCCGGAGCTGGGACTGGGTGAACCGTGTACCCCCCTTTAGCTGGAAATCTGGCACATGCTGGAGCATCCGTTGACCTT---ACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCGATCCTTGGGGCCATCAACTTCATCACAACGATTATTAATATGAAGCCCCCCGCTATCTCCCAATACCAGACCCCCCTCTTCGTATGATCAGTCCTTGTTACTGCTGTTCTACTCCTACTGTCCCTCCCCGTTCTCGCGGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTTCTCACAGACCGAAATCTGAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGCGACCCCATTCTTTACCAACACCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haemulon carbonarium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman 1978 Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Wikipedia

Caesar grunt

Haemulon carbonarium, the Caesar grunt, is a species of grunt native to the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil and also in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It inhabits coral or rock reefs and mangrove swamps at depths of from 3 to 25 metres (9.8 to 82 ft). This species can reach a length of 36 centimetres (14 in) TL though most do not exceed 20 centimetres (7.9 in). This species is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries and is also popular in public aquariums.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Haemulon carbonarium" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
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