Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits seagrass beds, sand flats, coral reefs, and wrecks (Ref. 9710). Found in pairs or larger schools (Ref. 3798). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3798). Has been observed to nose into the sand to eat such subsurface invertebrates as peanut worms and heart urchins (Ref. 13442). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Florida Keys (USA), Bermuda, and Bahamas to Brazil. Found throughout the West Indies; absent in Colombia (Ref. 3798).
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 7 - 8
  • Smith, C.L. 1997 National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. (Ref. 26938)
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Size

Maximum size: 710 mm TL
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Max. size

79.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 7,140 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Scale rows immediately below lateral line oblique (Ref. 26938). Usual color phase dull silvery, the fins largely gray; no black pigment below upper margin of preopercle; the dorsal and caudal fins of subadults and the back above a line from dorsal base to lower margin of caudal fin are often blackish (Ref. 13442).
  • Smith, C.L. 1997 National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. (Ref. 26938)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 20 - 60 m (Ref. 5217)
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Depth range based on 16 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 12 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 14.2
  Temperature range (°C): 26.412 - 27.684
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.196 - 2.022
  Salinity (PPS): 36.024 - 36.438
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.390 - 4.661
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 0.214
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 3.566

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.5 - 14.2

Temperature range (°C): 26.412 - 27.684

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.196 - 2.022

Salinity (PPS): 36.024 - 36.438

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.390 - 4.661

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.064 - 0.214

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 3.566
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 20 - 60m.
From 20 to 60 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Inhabits seagrass beds, sand flats, coral reefs, and wrecks (Ref. 9710). Adults usually in small groups (Ref. 9710). Feeds chiefly at night by rooting in the sand for benthic invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Good food fish.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Haemulon album

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CTTTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGGGCTGGGATAGTAGGAACAGCCCTA---AGCCTGCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTCCTTGGGGAT---GATCAAATCTACAACGTAATTGTTACTGCGCATGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTCTCATTGGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTGTCCCCCTAATG---ATCGGAGCACCCGATATAGCATTCCCCCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTTTGACTTCTCCCTCCTTCTTTCCTCCTCCTCCTCGCCTCTTCGGGCGTAGAAGCCGGGGCTGGAACTGGGTGGACTGTTTACCCCCCTCTGGCTGGGAACTTGGCACATGCCGGAGCGTCAGTTGACCTT---ACAATTTTCTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCAATCCTCGGGGCCATCAACTTCATTACAACGATTATTAACATGAAGCCTCCCGCTATCTCGCAGTACCAGACCCCGCTGTTCGTATGATCAGTCCTCGTTACTGCCGTGCTCCTTCTTCTGTCCCTCCCAGTACTTGCGGCG---GGCATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGATCGAAACCTAAACACCACTTTCTTCGACCCCGCTGGAGGAGGTGACCCCATTCTCTATCAGCATCTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haemulon album

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
  • Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman 1978 Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
  • Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
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