Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults form schools in clear coastal areas, usually near coral formations (Ref. 5217). Juveniles common in clean sandy beaches (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaete worms, insect pupae, mollusks and fishes (Ref. 9626). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 2 specimens were traded as aquarium fish at Fortaleza, Ceará (Ref. 49392).
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Distribution

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and the Gulf of Mexico to Argentina
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

Trachinotus goodei is distributed in coastal waters around the western Atlantic from Massachusetts, east to Bermuda, and south to Argentina, including the Northern and Southern Gulf of Mexico, (McEachran and Fechhelm 2005) and the Caribbean Sea.
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Western Atlantic.
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Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and the Gulf of Mexico to Argentina.
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Western Atlantic.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 7 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19 - 20; Anal spines: 2 - 3; Analsoft rays: 16 - 18
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)); max. published weight: 560 g (Ref. 40637)
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Diagnostic Description

Dorsal and anal fins have very long, dark anterior lobes (Ref. 26938). Bluish silver on back, shading to silver on sides, with four narrow dark bars on upper of body (Ref. 13442).
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Ecology

Habitat

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Trachinotus goodei is a coastal species found in sub-tropical climates at a depth range of 0–12 m. Adults of this species are usually found in clear coastal areas and in the surf zone along sandy beaches where they form large schools. They are also found around reefs and rocky areas (FAO 2002). Juveniles are common near clean, sandy beaches. This species is usually associated with high water salinity (FAO 2002). Trachinotus goodei feeds on crustaceans, polychaete worms, insect pupae, molluscs, and fishes.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; marine; depth range 0 - 12 m (Ref. 9710)
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Depth range based on 28 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 16 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 15
  Temperature range (°C): 26.770 - 27.724
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 0.997
  Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.993
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.538 - 4.667
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.051 - 0.169
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.862 - 2.813

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 15

Temperature range (°C): 26.770 - 27.724

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.174 - 0.997

Salinity (PPS): 34.217 - 36.993

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.538 - 4.667

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.051 - 0.169

Silicate (umol/l): 1.862 - 2.813
 
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Depth: 0 - 12m.
Recorded at 12 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Adults and juveniles commonly forming large schools in the the surf zone and clear water along sandy beaches, around reefs and rocky areas. Occurs in large schools (Ref. 5521). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaete worms, insect pupae, molluscs and fishes (Ref. 9626).
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Trophic Strategy

Adults form schools in clear coastal areas, usually near coral formations (Ref. 5217). Juveniles common in clean sandy beaches (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaete worms, insect pupae, mollusks and fishes (Ref. 9626).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Trachinotus goodei

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Trachinotus goodei

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTCTATCTAGTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCCGGRATAGTAGGTACAGCTTTAAGCCTACTTATTCGAGCGGAGCTTAGTCAACCCGGCGCCCTCCTAGGAGATGACCAAATTTACAATGTAATCGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATTATGATTGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCACTAATGATTGGAGCTCCAGATATGGCATTCCCTCGAATGAATAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCTCCCTCTTTTCTTCTCCTTCTTGCCTCCTCAGGAGTAGAAGCAGGTGCCGGAACCGGTTGAACAGTCTATCCCCCCTTAGCTGGTAATCTTGCCCATGCAGGAGCATCCGTTGATTTAACCATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCTGGWWTTTCATCAATTCTAGGGGCTATCAACTTCATTACGACAGTAATCAACATAAAACCCCATGCTGTCTCTATATACCAGATCCCACTATTTGTCTGAGCCGTTCTAATTACAGCCGTCCTCCTGCTTCTCTCACTACCTGTTTTAGCCGCTGGCATTACAATACTTCTTACTGATCGAAACCTAAACACTGCCTTCTTTGACCCAGCCGGAGGAGGAGATCCCATCCTATACCAACACCTTTTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K.E., Livingstone, S. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
Trachinotus goodei has been listed as Least Concern. Although harvested for human consumption, this is not thought to be a major threat to the global population of this broadly distributed species. This species is also known to be farmed, which is likely to have reduced the impact of harvesting of this species from the wild.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for Trachinotus goodei.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Trachinotus goodei is fished commercially, and is caught using seines and by sport fishers with hook-and-line. This species is not fished selectively and is found in Central and South American markets (FAO 2002). This species is also farmed for aquaculture, therefore commercial harvesting is unlikely to be a major threat to this species.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Trachinotus goodei is farmed for aquaculture and may be bred in captivity for this purpose. The distribution of this species may fall within numerous marine protected areas. Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this genus
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