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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: puffer (English), tamboril (Espanol), botete (Espanol)
 
Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758)


White-spotted puffer



Heavy round body; head large, blunt; snout short; nasal organ is a double tentacle, with minute pits on opposing surfaces of each tentacle; eyes high on sides of head; jaws are a heavy beak composed of 4 fused heavy powerful teeth with a central suture on each jaw; a slit-like gill opening in front of the pectoral fin base; a single short- based dorsal fin at rear of body; a similar-shaped anal fin below the dorsal; dorsal rays 10-11; anal rays 10-11; pectoral rays 17-19; no pelvic fins; no spines in the fins; tail base as long as deep; tail fin rounded, with 10 main rays; tough scaleless skin, small spinules on head and body except snout and posterior tail base; no fleshy skin flaps.


Greyish to greenish brown with small white spots dorsally, shading to white below with curved dark stripes; pectoral base and gill opening alternately circled by narrow white and black bands. 


Size: reaches 50 cm.

Inhabits shallow coral and rocky reefs and nearby soft bottoms.

Depth: 1-90 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific; northern Baja to Ecuador (except for the Gulf of California) and all the oceanic islands except Clipperton.
   
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Biology

Inhabit outer reef slopes to depths of at least 50 m, inner reef flats and lagoons. Juveniles common in weedy areas of estuaries (Ref. 4919). Also found in coastal bays and estuaries, usually near rocky reef or on sand-stretches between reefs with low algae-rubble reef to about 20 meters depth, or in shallow with sparse seagrass growth (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary and territorial on sandy to rubble areas. Feed on fleshy, calcareous, or coralline algae, detritus, mollusks, tunicates, sponges, corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs, tube worms and echinoderms (Ref. 1602).
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Distribution

Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Indo-Pacific : Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4919) to Panama, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Eastern Pacific: Baja California and the Gulf of California to Panama (Ref. 9349, 11482).
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Panama, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 90 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 11; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 11
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Size

Length max (cm): 50.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 500 mm TL
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Max. size

50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 30874)); max. published weight: 2,010 g (Ref. 40637)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
  • Allen, G.R. and R.C. Steene 1988 Fishes of Christmas Island Indian Ocean. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 6798, Australia. 197 p. (Ref. 30874)
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Diagnostic Description

The body is generally greenish-brown in color, the back, sides and caudal fin profusely speckled with white spots, and the belly marked with white bars. A single bent lateral line. Body with small spines except around snout and caudal peduncle. Each nostril with two fleshy solid tentacles. Restricted gill opening.Description: Characterized further by having short and obtuse snout, 2.0-2.3 in head length; bony interorbital width 2.6-3.1 in head length; rounded caudal fin (Ref. 90102).
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Description

Inhabits outer reef slopes to depths of at least 50 m, inner reef flats and lagoons and estuaries. Usually solitary and territorial on sandy to rubbly areas rather than on coral-rich areas. Occurs at 25 °C. Feeds on fleshy, calcareous, or coralline algae, detritus, molluscs, tunicates, sponges, corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs, tube worms and echinoderms.
  • Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 90102)
  • Allen, G.R. and M.V. Erdmann 2012 Reef fishes of the East Indies. Perth, Australia: Universitiy of Hawai'i Press, Volumes I-III. Tropical Reef Research. (Ref. 90102)
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Depth range based on 83 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 22 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 120
  Temperature range (°C): 19.831 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 5.562
  Salinity (PPS): 32.183 - 35.345
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.008 - 4.951
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.628
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 14.847

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 120

Temperature range (°C): 19.831 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 5.562

Salinity (PPS): 32.183 - 35.345

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.008 - 4.951

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 0.628

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 14.847
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 3 - 50m.
From 3 to 50 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Whitespotted puffer.  Linnaeus, 1758 Attains about 50 cm.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Corals, Reef and soft bottom, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Sand & gravel, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Solitary and slow moving. The species occurs in a wide range of habitats from estuaries and inner reef flats and lagoons to a depth of at least 50 m on outer reef slopes. It tends to be more common in sandy to rubble areas than in coral-rich areas. It feeds both during night and day on a wide range of marine organisms, including some algae (Ref. 11889). Omnivore (Ref. 57615).
  • Myers, R.F. 1991 Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, benthic macroalgae, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, sponges/seasquirts/bryozoa, soft corals/hydroids, hard corals, sessile worms
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Associations

Known prey organisms

Arothron hispidus preys on:
Acanthaster planci

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Diseases and Parasites

Paracardicola Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Martin, W.E. 1960 Hawaiian helminths. IV. Paracardicola hawaiensis N. Gen., N. Sp. (Trematoda: Sanguinicolidae) from the Balloon fish, Tetraodon hispidus L. J. Parasit. 46(5):648-650. (Ref. 46260)
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arothron hispidus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACACGCTGATTTTTCTCAACCAACCATAAAGACATCGGCACCCTCTACCTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGAACGGCCCTT---AGCCTTCTCATTCGGGCTGAACTCAGCCAACCAGGCGCACTCCTGGGCGAT---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAATCGTCACAGCCCACGCATTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCATGATTGGTGGCTTCGGGAACTGACTAGTACCACTTATG---ATCGGAGCCCCCGACATGGCGTTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTTTGACTACTTCCCCCTTCCTTTCTCCTTCTCCTAGCGTCCTCCGGCGTAGAGGCAGGGGCTGGCACAGGCTGAACCGTCTACCCACCATTAGCAGGCAATTTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCCGTCGACCTT---ACCATTTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGTGTCTCATCAATCCTTGGCGCCATTAACTTCATCACCACAATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCTCAGTACCAAACGCCCCTATTCGTATGGGCCGTTTTAATTACTGCCGTCCTCCTATTACTATCCCTGCCAGTCCTTGCAGCA---GGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGAAACCTAAACACCACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGCGGAGGAGACCCCATCCTCTACCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTATACATTCTCATCCTGCCCGGCTTTGGAATGATTTCCCACATCGTAGCATACTATGCCGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGCTACATGGGCATGGTCTGAGCCATAATGGCCATTGGCCTCCTGGGCTTTATCGTATGGGCCCACCACATGTTTACAGTAGGAATGGACGTTGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACATCCGCCACAATAATCATCGCCATCCCCACCGGTGTAAAAGTATTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACCCTCCATGGCGGC---TCCATTAAATGGGAAACCCCAATACTCTGGGCCCTAGGCTTCATTTTCCTTTTCACCGTAGGCGGGCTAACAGGGATCGTTTTAGCCAACTCTTCCCTAGACATTGTCCTACACGACACCTACTACGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCACTACGTA---CTCTCAATGGGAGCTGTCTTTGCCATCATGGGGGCCTTCGTGCACTGATTCCCGCTATTCTCCGGCTACACCCTTCACAGCACCTGAACAAAAATCCACTTCGTGGTGATGTTTGTAGGTGTCAACCTAACCTTCTTCCCCCAGCACTTCCTCGGACTCGCCGGAATGCCTCGT---CGATACTCAGACTACCCCGATGCCTACGCA---CTATGAAACACAGTCTCATCTATTGGCTCTCTAATCTCGCTTGTCGCAGTCATTATGTTCCTATTCATCCTCTGAGAAGCATTCGCTGCCAAACGTGAAGTT---GAATCAGTTGAACTAACTATAACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arothron hispidus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 45
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Florida Museum of Natural History
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
  • Miyasaka, A. 1993 A database on scientific and common names of fishes exported from Hawaii. The information was derived from the above mentioned database. A printout of the names is also available from the State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, 1151 Punchbowl Street, Honolulu, Hawaii. (Ref. 5358)
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Wikipedia

White-spotted puffer

The white-spotted puffer, Arothron hispidus, is a medium-sized puffer fish, it can reach 50 cm length.[1] It is light grey in color with small white spots. It also has concentric contrasting white and dark grey lines that radiate around the eyes and pectoral fins.

Its distribution extends through the Indo-Pacific area, Red Sea included, to the eastern Pacific Ocean.[2] It can be found at depths of three to 35 metres. Its habitat types include reefs, lagoons, estuaries, and tidepools. Its diet includes calcareous or coralline algae, molluscs, tunicates, sponges, corals, zoanthids, crabs, polychaetes, starfish, urchins, krill, and silversides.

The adult is nocturnal and solitary. It is territorial, becoming somewhat aggressive.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Arothron hispidus, White-spotted puffer : fisheries, aquarium". Fishbase.org. 2012-07-03. Retrieved 2013-09-03. 
  2. ^ "Facts about White-spotted Puffer (Arothron hispidus) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. Retrieved 2013-09-03. 


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