The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bryson Jr, RW, Nieto-Montes de Oca, A, and Reyes Velasco, J. 2008. Phylogenetic Position of Porthidium Hespere (Viperidae: Crotalinae) and Phylogeography of Arid-Adapted Hognosed Pitvipers Based on Mitochondrial DNA. Copeia 2008(1):172-178 doi: 10.1643/CH-07-043
  • Castoe, TA, MM Sasa, CL Parkinson, 2005. Modeling nucleotide evolution at the mesoscale: The phylogeny of the Neotropical pitvipers of the Porthidium group (Viperidae: Crotalinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37(3): 881–898.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Jadin, RC, EN Smith, and JA Campbell, 2011. Unravelling a tangle of Mexican serpents: a systematic revision of highland pitvipers. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163(3) 943-958.
  • Lamar, WW. and M Sasa, 2003. A new species of hognose pit viper, genus Porthidium, from the southwestern Pacific of Costa Rica (Serpentes: Viperidae). Rev. biol. trop vol.51 no.3-4 San José . Available online at
  • Lomonte, B., P Rey-Suárez, W-C Tsai, Y Angulo, M Sasa, JM Gutiérrez and JJ Calvete 2012. Snake venomics of the pit vipers Porthidium nasutum, Porthidium ophryomegas, and Cerrophidion godmani from Costa Rica: Toxicological and taxonomical insights. Journal of Proteomics 75(5):1675–1689
  • McDiarmid, Roy W., Jonathan A. Campbell, and T'Shaka A. Touré. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. xi + 511
  • Valencia, JH, G. Vaca-Guerrero, and K. Garzon, 2010. Natural history, potential distribution and conservation status of the Manabi Hognose Pitviper Porthidum arcosae (SCHÄTTI & KRAMER, 1993), in Ecuador Herpetozoa 23:
  • Wüster, W, L Peppin, CE Pook, DE Walker, 2008. A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(2):445-459.
  • Wüster, W., da Graca Salamao, M., Quijada-Mascarenas, J.Aa., Thorpe, R.S., B.B.B.S.P., 2002. Origins and evolution of the South American pitviper fauna: evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. In: Schuett, G.W., Hoggren, M., Douglas, M.E., Greene, H.W. (Eds.), Biology of the Vipers. Eagle Mountain Puglishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah, Pp. 111-128. PDF available at


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