Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 9 specimens in 17 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 8.237 - 13.247
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.398 - 6.523
  Salinity (PPS): 7.468 - 35.378
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.045 - 8.154
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.258 - 0.479
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.415

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 8.237 - 13.247

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.398 - 6.523

Salinity (PPS): 7.468 - 35.378

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.045 - 8.154

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.258 - 0.479

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.415
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 508
Specimens with Sequences: 455
Specimens with Barcodes: 380
Species: 55
Species With Barcodes: 44
Public Records: 174
Public Species: 26
Public BINs: 29
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Leaf warbler

Leaf warblers are small insectivorous birds belonging mainly to the genus Phylloscopus. They were formerly included in the Old World warbler family but are now considered to belong to the Phylloscopidae, a family created in 2006. The genus is closely related to Seicercus and some species have been moved between the two genera in recent classification attempts. Leaf warblers are active, constantly moving, often flicking their wings as they glean the foliage for insects along the branches of trees and bushes. They forage at various levels within forests, from the top canopy to the understorey. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters.

Most are greenish or brownish above and off-white or yellowish below. Compared to some other "warblers", their songs are very simple

Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.

The species traditionally placed in Phylloscopus are:

References[edit]

  • Alström, Per; Ericson, Per G.P.; Olsson, Urban & Sundberg, Per (2006): Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015 PMID 16054402
  • Badyaev, Alexander V. & Leaf, Elizabeth S. (1997): Habitat associations of song characteristics in Phylloscopus and Hippolais warblers. Auk 114(1): 40-46. PDF fulltext
  • Del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Christie D. (editors). (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-96553-06-X.
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Siberian Chiffchaff

Siberian chiffchaff (Phylloscopus (collybita) tristis) is a leaf-warbler which is usually considered a subspecies of the common chiffchaff, but may be a species in its own right.

Range[edit]

Siberian chiffchaff breeds in Siberia east of the Pechora River and winters in the lower Himalayas.[1]

Status in Europe[edit]

It is also regularly recorded in western Europe in winter, and it is likely that the numbers involved have been underestimated due to uncertainties over identification criteria, lack of good data and recording policies (Sweden and Finland only accept trapped birds).[2]

Because of their unfamiliar appearance, British records in the 1950s and 1960s were originally thought to be greenish warblers, and accepted as such by BBRC, the national rarities committee, until the records were reviewed in the 1980s. [3]

Appearance and vocalisations[edit]

It is a dull bird, grey or brownish above and whitish below, with little yellow in the plumage, and the buff-white supercilium is often longer than in the western subspecies. It has a higher pitched suitsistsuisit song and a short high-pitched cheet call.[4] It is sometimes considered to be a full species due to its distinctive plumage and vocalisations, being similar to P. s. sindianus in these respects.[5][6]

Taxonomy[edit]

Common chiffchaffs (of the nominate race) and Siberian chiffchaffs do not recognize each other's songs.[7][8] Pending resolution of the status of the form fulvescens, which is found where the ranges of common chiffchaff (of the race abietinus) and Siberian chiffchaff connect and may[9] or may not[8] be a hybrid between these, tristis is maintained in P. collybita by most checklists.[10]


Resources[edit]

  1. ^ Baker, Kevin (1997). Warblers of Europe, Asia and North Africa (Helm Identification Guides). London: Helm. pp. 256–259. ISBN 0-7136-3971-7. 
  2. ^ Dean, Alan; Bradshaw, Colin; Martin, John; Stoddart, Andy; Walbridge, Grahame (2010). "The status in Britain of 'Siberian Chiffchaff'". British Birds 103: 320–337. 
  3. ^ Dean, Alan (1985). "Review of British status and identification of Greenish Warbler". British Birds 78 (9): 437–451. 
  4. ^ Clement, Peter (1995). The Chiffchaff. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-57978-6. 
  5. ^ (German) Martens, Jochen (1982): Ringförmige Arealüberschneidung und Artbildung beim Zilpzalp, Phylloscopus collybita. Das lorenzii-Problem. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 20: 82–100.
  6. ^ Helbig, Andreas J.; Martens, Jochen; Seibold, I.; Henning, F.; Schottler, B; Wink, Michael (1996). "Phylogeny and species limits in the Palearctic Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita complex: mitochondrial genetic differentiation and bioacoustic evidence". Ibis 138 (4): 650–666. 
  7. ^ (German) Schubert, M. (1982): Zur Lautgebung mehrerer zentralasiatischer Laubsänger-Arten (Phylloscopus; Aves, Sylviidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin 58: 109–128.
  8. ^ a b (German) Martens, Jochen; Meincke, C. (1989): Der sibirische Zilpzalp (Phylloscopus collybita tristis): Gesang und Reaktion einer mitteleuropäischen Population im Freilandversuch. Journal für Ornithologie 130 (4): 455–473. [with English abstract] doi:10.1007/BF01918465
  9. ^ (Russian) Marova, I. M. & Leonovich, V. V. (1993) [Hybridization between Siberian (Phylloscopus collybita tristis) and East European (Ph. collybita abietinus) Chiffchaffs in the area of sympatry.] Sbornik Trudov Zoologicheskogo Muzeya, Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 30: 147–163.
  10. ^ Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Parkin, David T. (2002). "Taxonomic recommendations for European birds". Ibis 144 (1): 153–159. doi:10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Heard, Chris (1989) "Racial identification of wintering Chiffchaffs" Birding World 2(2): 60-65
  • King, Jon (1996) "A cat among the chiffchaffs" Birding World 9(4): 155-156
  • McGregor, Ross (1997) "Siberian Chiffchaffs in Aberdeenshire" Birding World 10(2): 70
  • Pennington, Mike (1997) "Siberian Chiffchaffs in Britain" Birding World 10(4): 153-154
  • Millington, Richard (2000) "The Siberian Chiffchaffs in Worcestershire" Birding World 13(2): 58-59
  • Dean, Alan R. and Svensson, Lars (2005) "'Siberian Chiffchaff' revisited" British Birds 98(8): 396-410
  • Dean, Alan R. (2008) "Colour nomenclature and Siberian Chiffchaff" British Birds 101(3): 144-149
  • Dubois, Philippe J. and Marc Duquet (2008) "Further thoughts on Siberian Chiffchaff" British Birds 101(3): 149-150
  • van den Berg, Arnoud B. (2009) "Calls, identification and taxonomy of Siberian Chiffchaff: an analysis" Dutch Birding 31(2): 79-85
  • Ebels, Enno (2009) "Siberische Tjiftjaffen in Nederland: voorkomen en determinatie" Dutch Birding 31(2): 86-100 (in Dutch with English summary)
  • McGeehan, Anthony (2011) "Siberian Chiffchaff - in from the cold" Birding World 24(1): 18-23
  • de Knijff, Peter, Vincent van der Spek & Johannes Fischer (2012) "Genetic identity of grey chiffchaffs trapped in the Netherlands in autumns of 2009-11" Dutch Birding 34(6): 386-392
  • Collinson, J. Martin, Thomas Shannon, Paul Archer, Nigel Odin, Roger Riddington and Paul Walsh (2013) "Genetic analysis of migrant Siberian Chiffchaffs in Britain and Ireland" British Birds 106(2): 109-113
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