Cryptoprocta ferox has several features similar to the Felidae. The dentition is characteristic of advanced carnivores - the carnassials are enlarged and there is one reduced upper molar. The skull has a shortened braincase and enlarged orbits (Ewer 1973).
The anal scent glands produce a pungent odour when the animal is aggravated (Nowak, 2005).Cryptoprocta ferox also has chest glands that fully develop upon sexual maturity. They are larger in males and secretions are more active during the breeding season (Ewer, 1973).See video footage of the fossa scent marking on the Arkive website.
Cryptoprocta ferox is plantigrade and the retractile claws are short, sharp and curved (Nowak, 2005).See video footage of the fossa grooming on the Arkive website.
The fur is short, dense, soft and usually red-brown but occasionally black.Malagasy people originally thought this variation represented different species but it is more widely accepted that the colouration is melanistic.The vibrissae (whiskers) are especially pronounced and are as long as the head (Kohncke, 1986), (Nowak, 2005).
Cryptoprocta ferox is the largest carnivore on Madagascar and has been described as having the appearance of a small cougar or a jaguarondi, thanks to its rounded ears, cat-like body and long tail (Nowak, 2005).It grows to the following sizes:
- head and body length: 610–800mm
- tail: 610–800mm
- shoulder height: 370mm
- adult weight: 7–12kg
Cryptoprocta ferox are solitary except during breeding season. They are usually nocturnal and crepuscular, although may occasionally be seen during the day (Kohncke, 1986), (Nowak, 2005).
Cryptoprocta ferox breed in September–October (Kohncke, 1986).They have an unusual mating system in which a single female will occupy a tree and mate with several males, sometimes repeatedly, over 1 or more days.The same site is occupied for several days with females sequentially replacing each other. Cryptoprocta ferox have been observed to use the same tree as a traditional site for mating (Hawkins, 2009).Gestation is approximately 3 months and young are born blind and toothless but furred (Kohncke, 1986). Litters range in size from 2 – 4 young (Nowak, 2005). The eyes open at 12 days old and they begin to eat solids at 90 days (Ewer, 1973).The young leave the den after 4.5 months and are then weaned.Sexual maturity is thought to occur at 4 years (Nowak, 2005).See video footage of the fossa's breeding behaviour and a female fossa chasing off an unwanted male, on the Arkive website.
Fossas are found throughout forested areas of Madagascar.
Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )
Other Geographic Terms: island endemic
- Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Vol I. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fossas are cat-like in appearance, with blunt noses and large, forward-facing eyes. Total body length ranges from 610 to 800 mm, with a tail of matching length. Shoulder height is typically 370 mm. Fossas have vibrissae that are as long as their heads, and are covered in short, thick fur of a reddish-brown color, although there are sometimes black individuals. They have short, curved, retractile claws and a plantigrade stance (Nowak 1999). Anal and preputial glands can be found. Males have a large baculum, a barb on the glans of the penis, and are slightly larger than females. They have rounded ears. Teeth are shorter and fewer in number (32 to 36) than other viverrids (Schliemann 1989). The generic name, Cryptoprocta, comes from the fact that the anus ("procta") is hidden ("crypto") by an anal pouch (Kohncke & Leonhardt 1986).
Range mass: 7 to 12 kg.
Range length: 610 to 800 mm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: male larger
- Kohncke, M., K. Leonhardt. 1986. Cryptoprocta ferox. No. 254: Mammalian Species.
- Schliemann, H. 1989. Viverrids. Pp. 510-556 in S Parker, ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol 3. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Madagascar Dry Deciduous Forests Habitat
Boophis goudotii is found in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion among other ecoregions in Madagascar. This ecoregion in western Madagascar represents some of the world’s most species rich and most distinctive tropical dry forests. They are characterized by very high local plant and animal endemism at the species, genera and family levels.This ecoregion also contains spectacular limestone karst formations, known as tsingy.
The climate of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests is tropical, with temperatures ranging from a mean maximum of 30° to 33°C and a mean minimum of 8° to 21°C. There is a wet and a dry season, with most of the rainfall from October to April. Precipitation declines from an annual average of around 1500 millimetres (mm) in the north to about 1000 mm in the south of the region.
The geology of the ecoregion is varied, being rather complex in some zones, and includes ancient Precambrian basement rocks, unconsolidated sands, and Tertiary and Mesozoic limestone. While most of the forest on the Tertiary limestone has been destroyed, the spectacular karsts of the Mesozoic limestone and the associated forest patches are more or less intact. The ecoregion is a mosaic of dry deciduous forest, degraded secondary forests and grasslands.
Some of the distinctive plants in the forests include the flamboyant tree, Delonix regia (family Leguminosae), and several species of baobabs (Adansonia, family Bombacaceae), including the Near Threatened Fony baobab (A. rubrostipa) and the Endangered Suarez baobab (A. suarezensis).
Endemic mammal species to the ecoregion include the Golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz), Lowland western forest rat (Nesomys lambertoni), Golden-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis), Northern rufous mouse lemur (M. tavaratra), Western rufous mouse lemur (M. myoxinus), Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri), Milne-Edwards’s sportive lemur (Lepilemur edwardsi), and the Endangered big-footed mouse (Macrotarsomys ingens). Lemur species, particularly the Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus), may be critical to the regeneration of the forests because they are some of the few and potentially most important seed dispersers in this diverse forest. The dry deciduous forests are one of the primary habitats for the island’s largest predator, the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), and some of the smaller endemic Carnivora.
The rivers and lakes of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests ecoregion are critically important habitats for the endemic and endangered Madagascar sideneck turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis). This species represents a significant "Gondwanaland relic", since its closest relatives are in the Podocnemis genus of in South America. The scrubland and bamboo forests of the ecoregion are the habitat of one of the most endangered reptiles in the world, the ploughshare tortoise (Geochelone yniphora). Other critical endemic reptiles of the ecoregion include the chameleons Brookesia bonsi and B. decaryi. At least three chameleon species are endemic to this ecoregion, including Furcifer tuzetae, F. rhinoceratus, and F. angeli. The dwarf chameleons Brookesia exarmata and B. perarmata are endemic to the Tsingy of Bemaraha. The colorful arboreal snake Lycodryas (Stenophis) citrinus is only recorded from Tsingy de Bemaraha and Namoroka region. Several geckos are endemic to this ecoregion including Paroedura maingoka, P. vazimba, P. tanjaka, Uroplatus geuntheri, and Lygodactylus klemmeri; the latter is only known from the Tsingy de Bemaraha. Futher, the region also holds several endemic skinks species including Mabuya tandrefana, Pygomeles braconnieri, and Androngo elongatus. Recently new species of plated lizard were described from the ecoregion – Zonosaurus bemaraha in the southern portion and Z. tsingy in the northern portion.
Notable amphibians in the ecoregion include the Near Threatened Ambohimitombo bright-eyed frog (Boophis majori); the Antsouhy tomato frog (Dyscophus insularis); the Betsileo golden frog (Mantella betsileo); Betsileo Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus betsileanus); the Betsileo reed frog (Heterixalus betsileo); the Central Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus opiparis); Forest Bright-eyed frog (Boophis erythrodactylus), who typically breeds in wide forest streams; Goudot's Bright-eyed frog (Boophis goudotii); Madagascar bullfrog (Laliostoma labrosum), a Madagascar endemic that is fossorial outside its breeding season; and the Marbled rainfrog (Scaphiophryne marmorata), who breeds in shallow temporary pools.
The ecoregion contains important habitats for 131 of the 186 resident terrestrial bird species listed for Madagascar. Several of these species are associated with lakes and rivers of the region, such as the Manambolo, Betsiboka, Mahajamba, and their satellite lakes. These species include Bernier’s teal (Anas bernieri), Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides), Humblot’s heron (Ardea humbloti) and the Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri). These birds are dependent on wetlands and they are becoming increasingly isolated and restricted due to habitat fragmentation and conversion to rice paddy. Some of these species also use the fringes of the mangroves on the western coast of Madagascar. Several bird species are confined to the western forests, have limited or disjunct ranges, in some cases associated with habitat fragmentation including Van Dam’s vanga (Xenopirostris damii), and White-breasted mesite (Mesitornis variegata).
- C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
- Lowry, P.P. II, G.E. Schatz, and P.B. Phillipson. 1997. The classification of natural and anthropogenic vegetation in Madagascar. pp. 93-123 in: S.M. Goodman and B. D.Patterson (eds.). Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. ISBN: 1560986832
Fossas inhabit all forested areas on the island of Madagascar. They range from the coastal lowlands to mountainous areas up to 2000 meters in elevation.
Range elevation: 2000 (high) m.
Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest
Habitat and Ecology
Fossas are the largest mammalian carnivores on the island of Madagascar. Their diet consists of small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. Fossas also prey on lemurs (Lemuridae). They are excellent climbers and will pursue lemurs through the trees.
Animal Foods: birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; insects
Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates)
Fossas are the top, mammalian predators on Madagascar. They impact the populations of many species of small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Fossas are top predators on Madagascar. Their main predators are humans. Young fossas may fall prey to large snakes or birds of prey, although this is not documented. Fossas are cryptically colored and secretive.
- humans (Homo sapiens)
Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic
Known prey organisms
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Cryptoprocta ferox inhabit a variety of regions from coastal lowlands to mountainous areas of up to 2,600m but are usually only found inhabiting forested areas. They may be found passing through non-forested habitat (Hawkins, 2008).They are terrestrial and arboreal (Hawkins, 2008) - they are excellent climbers and extremely agile when moving through trees (Nowak, 2005).See video footage of the fossa climbing in trees on the Arkive website.
Cryptoprocta ferox was originally thought to prey exclusively on lemurs, but is now known to have a varied and opportunistic diet. They are adept at hunting both on the ground and in the trees (Goodman et al 2004). They feed on:
- smaller mammals (including lemurs up to around 3kg)
Life History and Behavior
Fossas have keen vision, hearing, and smell. They mark their territories with secretions from their scent glands and may use chemical cues to communicate reproductive status.
Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic ; chemical
Other Communication Modes: scent marks
Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
- Haltenorth, T., H. Diller. 1980. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa, Including Madagascar. London: Collins.
While the life span of fossas has not been studied in the wild, one specimen lived twenty years in captivity (Kohncke & Leonhardt 1986).
Status: captivity: 20 (high) years.
Status: captivity: 20.0 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Aggression among males may occur during the mating season, including threatening calls and postures, which lead to fights where each contestant tries to bite the other. Copulation can occur on the ground or on a horizontal branch. To signify her readiness to mate, the female lifts her hindquarters and turns her external genitalia inside out about two to three centimeters. The male then mounts her and bites the back of her neck. The period of copulation lasts up to 165 minutes (Schliemann 1989).
Mating occurs in September and October, and young are born in a den in December and January after a three month gestation period. At birth the two to four young weigh 100 grams each. They are altricial, being toothless and blind, but furred (Kohncke & Leonhardt 1986). At four and a half months a young fossa is weaned and ventures out of the den (Nowak 1999). The young fossa leaves its mother when it reaches fifteen to twenty months of age, have adult teeth at 2 years old and attain full adult size at four years of age (Schliemann 1989, Nowak 1999).
Breeding interval: Fossas breed once yearly.
Breeding season: Mating occurs in September and October.
Range number of offspring: 2 to 4.
Average gestation period: 3 months.
Average weaning age: 4.5 months.
Range time to independence: 15 to 20 months.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous
Average birth mass: 100 g.
Average gestation period: 90 days.
Average number of offspring: 3.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 1496 days.
Young are cared for and nursed by females in the den until they are weaned. They are further protected until they become independent, at from 15 to 20 months old.
Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Protecting: Female)
- Kohncke, M., K. Leonhardt. 1986. Cryptoprocta ferox. No. 254: Mammalian Species.
- Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Vol I. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Schliemann, H. 1989. Viverrids. Pp. 510-556 in S Parker, ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol 3. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fossas are widely hunted, and their habitat is constantly being enroached upon by humans. Fossas were upgraded from "vulnerable" to "endangered" by the IUCN in 2000 based on estimates that only 2500 individuals survive in increasingly fragmented habitat.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: appendix ii
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1994Insufficiently Known(Groombridge 1994)
- 1990Insufficiently Known(IUCN 1990)
- 1988Insufficiently Known(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
- 1986Vulnerable(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Humans pose the main threat to Cryptoprocta ferox. They are hunted and persecuted because of their exaggerated reputation as being fearsome, and their role as a pest - they are known to hunt poultry and are said to attack hogs and oxen.There is also considerable superstition associated the species (Hawkins, 2008), (Pickrell, 2005).This species' habitat is threatened due to collection of firewood and conversion to agricultural land, and is being fragmented due to selective logging (Hawkins, 2008).Cryptoprocta ferox has no natural predators but is predated by feral dogs (Hawkins, 2008). Diseases such as rabies that are transmitted by introduced animals also threaten the species (Pickrell, 2005).
Densities for the eastern forests are hypothesized by some to be at one-third that of the west, based on phototrapping and cage trapping efforts throughout the humid forests (L. Dollar, unpubl.). Subjective encounter rate is much higher in western forests (particularly in Menabe, Bemaraha and Ankarana reserves) than in rainforests (F. Hawkins unpubl.), but densities could well be similar between dry and humid forests. This is an important point for future investigation. Important factors may include densities of lemur prey species, and levels of hunting.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Among humans, fossas have an exaggerated reputation for savagery and destruction. They do sometimes prey upon domestic poultry, and there have even been accounts of attacks on oxen and goats, but these are rare and their veracity may be questionable.
Fossas are fascinating members of a unique Malagasy mammalian radiation. They are charismatic animals and are important in ecotourism.
Positive Impacts: ecotourism ; research and education
The fossa (// or //; Malagasy [ˈfusə̥]; Cryptoprocta ferox) is a cat-like, carnivorous mammal endemic to Madagascar. It is a member of the Eupleridae, a family of carnivorans closely related to the mongoose family (Herpestidae). Its classification has been controversial because its physical traits resemble those of cats, yet other traits suggest a close relationship with viverrids (most civets and their relatives). Its classification, along with that of the other Malagasy carnivores, influenced hypotheses about how many times mammalian carnivores have colonized Madagascar. With genetic studies demonstrating the fossa and all other Malagasy carnivores are most closely related to each other (forming a clade, recognized as the family Eupleridae), carnivorans are now thought to have colonized the island once around 18 to 20 million years ago.
The fossa is the largest mammalian carnivore on the island of Madagascar and has been compared to a small cougar. Adults have a head-body length of 70–80 cm (28–31 in) and weigh between 5.5 and 8.6 kg (12 and 19 lb), with the males larger than the females. It has semiretractable claws and flexible ankles that allow it to climb up and down trees head-first, and also support jumping from tree to tree. The fossa is unique within its family for the shape of its genitalia, which share traits with those of cats and hyenas.
The species is widespread, although population densities are usually low. It is found solely in forested habitat, and actively hunts both by day and night. Over 50% of its diet consists of lemurs, the endemic primates found on the island; tenrecs, rodents, lizards, birds, and other animals are also documented as prey. Mating usually occurs in trees on horizontal limbs and can last for several hours. Litters range from one to six pups, which are born blind and toothless (altricial). Infants wean after 4.5 months and are independent after a year. Sexual maturity occurs around three to four years of age, and life expectancy in captivity is 20 years. The fossa is listed as "Vulnerable" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It is generally feared by the Malagasy people and is often protected by their fady (taboo). The greatest threat to the species is habitat destruction.
The generic name Cryptoprocta refers to how the animal's anus is hidden by its anal pouch, from the Ancient Greek words crypto- "hidden", and procta "anus". The species name ferox is the Latin adjective "fierce" or "wild." Its common name is spelled fossa in English or fosa in Malagasy, the Austronesian language from which it was taken, but some authors have adopted the Malagasy spelling in English. The word is similar to posa (meaning "cat") in the Iban language (another Austronesian language) from Borneo, and both terms may derive from trade languages from the 1600s. However, an alternative etymology suggests a link to another word that comes from Malay: pusa refers to the Malayan weasel (Mustela nudipes). The Malay word pusa could have become posa for cats in Borneo, while in Madagascar the word could have become fosa to refer to the fossa.
The fossa was formally described by Edward Turner Bennett on the basis of a specimen from Madagascar sent by Charles Telfair in 1833. The common name is the same as the generic name of the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), but they are different species. Because of shared physical traits with civets, mongooses, and cats (Felidae), its classification has been controversial. Bennett originally placed the fossa as a type of civet in the family Viverridae, a classification that long remained popular among taxonomists. Its compact braincase, large eye sockets, retractable claws, and specialized carnivorous dentition have also led some taxonomists to associate it with the felids. In 1939, William King Gregory and Milo Hellman placed the fossa in its own subfamily within Felidae, the Cryptoproctinae. George Gaylord Simpson placed it back in Viverridae in 1945, still within its own subfamily, yet conceded it had many cat-like characteristics.
In 1993, Géraldine Veron and François Catzeflis published a DNA hybridization study suggesting the fossa was more closely related to mongooses (family Herpestidae) than to cats or civets. However, in 1995, Veron's morphological study once again grouped it with Felidae. In 2003, molecular phylogenetic studies using nuclear and mitochondrial genes by Anne Yoder and colleagues showed all native Malagasy carnivorans share a common ancestry that excludes other carnivores (meaning they form a clade, making them monophyletic) and are most closely related to Asian and African Herpestidae. To reflect these relationships, all Malagasy carnivorans are now placed in a single family, Eupleridae. Within Eupleridae, the fossa is placed in the subfamily Euplerinae with the falanouc (Eupleres goudoti) and Malagasy civet, but its exact relationships are poorly resolved.
An extinct relative of the fossa was described in 1902 from subfossil remains and recognized as a separate species, Cryptoprocta spelea, in 1935. This species was larger than the living fossa (with a body mass estimate roughly twice as great), but otherwise similar. Across Madagascar, people distinguish two kinds of fossa—a large fosa mainty ("black fossa") and the smaller fosa mena ("reddish fossa")—and a white form has been reported in the southwest. It is unclear whether this is purely folklore or individual variation—related to sex, age or instances of melanism and leucism—or whether there is indeed more than one species of living fossa.
The fossa appears as a diminutive form of a large felid, such as a cougar, but with a slender body and muscular limbs, and a tail nearly as long as the rest of the body. It has a mongoose-like head, relatively longer than that of a cat, although with a muzzle that is broad and short, and with large but rounded ears. It has medium brown eyes set relatively wide apart with pupils that contract to slits. Like many carnivorans that hunt at night, its eyes reflect light; the reflected light is orange in hue. Its head-body length is 70–80 cm (28–31 in) and its tail is 65–70 cm (26–28 in) long. There is some sexual dimorphism, with adult males (weighing 6.2–8.6 kg or 14–19 lb) being larger than females (5.5–6.8 kg or 12–15 lb). Smaller individuals are typically found north and east on Madagascar, while larger ones to the south and west. Unusually large individuals weighing up to 20 kg (44 lb) have been reported, but there is some doubt as to the reliability of the measurements. The fossa can smell, hear, and see well. It is a robust animal and illnesses are rare in captive fossas.
Both males and females have short, straight fur that is relatively dense and without spots or patterns. Both sexes are generally a reddish-brown dorsally and colored a dirty cream ventrally. When in rut, they may have an orange coloration to their abdomen from a reddish substance secreted by a chest gland secretions, but this has not been consistently observed by all researchers. The tail tends to be lighter in coloration than the sides. Juveniles are either gray or nearly white.
Several of the animal's physical features are adaptions to climbing through trees. It uses its tail to aid in balance and has semi-retractable claws that it uses to climb trees in its search for prey. It has semiplantigrade feet, switching between a plantigrade-like gait (when arboreal) and a digitigrade-like one (when terrestrial). The soles of its paws are nearly bare and covered with strong pads. The fossa has very flexible ankles that allow it to readily grasp tree trunks so as to climb up or down trees head first or to leap to another tree. Captive juveniles have been known to swing upside down by their hindfeet from knotted ropes.
The fossa has several scent glands, although the glands are less developed in females. Like herpestids it has a perianal skin gland inside an anal sac which surrounds the anus like a pocket. The pocket opens to the exterior with a horizontal slit below the tail. Other glands are located near the penis or vagina, with the penile glands emitting a strong odor. Like the herpestids, it has no prescrotal glands.
One of the more peculiar physical features of this species is its external genitalia. The male fossa has an unusually long penis and baculum (penis bone), reaching to between his forelegs when erect, with an average thickness of 20 mm (0.79 in). The glans extends about halfway down the shaft and is spiny except at the tip. In comparison, the glans of felids is short and spiny, while that of viverrids is smooth and long. The female fossa exhibits transient masculization, starting at about 1–2 years of age, developing an enlarged, spiny clitoris that resembles a male's penis. The enlarged clitoris is supported by an os clitoridis, which decreases in size as the animal grows. The females do not have a pseudo-scrotum, but they do secrete an orange substance that colors their underparts, much like the secretions of males. Hormone levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone) do not seem to play a part in this transient masculization, as those levels are the same in masculinized juveniles and nonmasculinized adults. It is speculated that the transient masculization either reduces sexual harassment of juvenile females by adult males, or reduces aggression from territorial females. While females of other mammal species (such as the spotted hyena) have a pseudo-penis, no other is known to diminish in size as the animal grows.
Overall, the fossa has features in common with three different carnivoran families, leading researchers to place it and other members of Eupleridae alternatively in Herpestidae, Viverridae, and Felidae. Felid features are primarily those associated with eating and digestion, including tooth shape and facial portions of the skull, the tongue, and the digestive tract, typical of its exclusively carnivorous diet. The remainder of the skull most closely resembles skulls of genus Viverra, while the general body structure is most similar to that of various members of Herpestidae. The permanent dentition is 3.1.3-4.1 (three incisors, one canine, three or four premolars, and one molar on each side of both the upper and lower jaws), with the deciduous formula being similar but lacking the fourth premolar and the molar. The fossa has a large, prominent rhinarium similar to that of viverrids, but has comparatively larger, round ears, almost as large as those of a similarly sized felid. Its facial vibrissae (whiskers) are long, with the longest being longer than its head. Like some mongoose genera, particularly Galidia (which is now in the fossa's own family, Eupleridae) and Herpestes (of Herpestidae), it has carpal vibrissae as well. Its claws are retractile, but unlike those of Felidae species, they are not hidden in skin sheaths. It has three pairs of nipples (one inguinal, one ventral, and one pectoral).
Habitat and distribution
The fossa has the most widespread geographical range of the Malagasy carnivores, and is generally found in low numbers throughout the island in remaining tracts of forest, preferring pristine undisturbed forest habitat. It is also encountered in some degraded forests, but in lower numbers. Although the fossa is found in all known forest habitats throughout Madagascar, including the western, dry deciduous forests, the eastern rainforests, and the southern spiny forests, it is seen more frequently in humid than in dry forests. This may be because the reduced canopy in dry forests provides less shade, and also because the fossa seems to travel more easily in humid forests. It is absent from areas with the heaviest habitat disturbance and, like most of Madagascar's fauna, from the central high plateau of the country.
The fossa has been found across several different elevational gradients in undisturbed portions of protected areas throughout Madagascar. In the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andringitra, evidence of the fossa has been reported at four different sites ranging from 810 to 1,625 m (2,657 to 5,331 ft). Its highest known occurrence was reported at 2,000 m (6,600 ft); its presence high on the Andringitra Massif was subsequently confirmed in 1996. Similarly, evidence has been reported of the fossa at the elevational extremes of 440 m (1,440 ft) and 1,875 m (6,152 ft) in the Andohahela National Park. The presence of the fossa at these locations indicates its ability to adapt to various elevations, consistent with its reported distribution in all Madagascar forest types.
The fossa is active during both the day and the night and is considered cathemeral; activity peaks may occur early in the morning, late in the afternoon, and late in the night. The animal generally does not reuse sleeping sites, but females with young do return to the same den. The home ranges of male fossas in Kirindy Forest are up to 26 km2 (10 sq mi) large, compared to 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi) for females. These ranges overlap—by about 30% according to data from the eastern forests—but females usually have separated ranges. Home ranges grow during the dry season, perhaps because less food and water is available. In general, radio-collared fossas travel between 2 and 5 kilometres (1.2 and 3.1 mi) per day, although in one reported case a fossa was observed moving a straight-line distance of 7 km (4.3 mi) in 16 hours. The animal's population density appears to be low: in Kirindy Forest, where it is thought to be common, its density has been estimated at one animal per 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi) in 1998. Another study in the same forest between 1994 and 1996 using the mark and recapture method indicated a population density of one animal per 3.8 km2 (1.5 sq mi) and one adult per 5.6 km2 (2.2 sq mi).
Except for mothers with young and occasional observations of pairs of males, animals are usually found alone, so that the species is considered solitary. A 2009 publication, however, reported a detailed observation of cooperative hunting, wherein three male fossas hunted a 3 kg (6.6 lb) sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) for 45 minutes, and subsequently shared the prey. This behavior may be a vestige of cooperative hunting that would have been required to take down larger recently extinct lemurs.
Fossas communicate using sounds, scents, and visual signals. Vocalizations include purring, a threatening call, and a call of fear, consisting of "repeated loud, coarse inhalations and gasps of breath". A long, high yelp may function to attract other fossas. Females mew during mating and males produce a sigh when they have found a female. Throughout the year, animals produce long-lasting scent marks on rocks, trees, and the ground using glands in the anal region and on the chest. They also communicate using face and body expression, but the significance of these signals is uncertain. The animal is aggressive only during mating, and males in particular fight boldly. After a short fight, the loser flees and is followed by the winner for a short distance. In captivity, fossas are usually not aggressive and sometimes even allow themselves to be stroked by a zookeeper, but adult males in particular may try to bite.
The fossa is a carnivore that hunts small to medium-sized animals. One of eight carnivorous species endemic to Madagascar, the fossa is the island's largest surviving endemic terrestrial mammal and the only predator capable of preying upon adults of all extant lemur species, the largest of which can weigh as much as 90% of the weight of the average fossa. Although it is the predominant predator of lemurs, reports of its dietary habits demonstrate a wide variety of prey selectivity and specialization depending on habitat and season; diet does not vary by sex. While the fossa is thought to be a lemur specialist in Ranomafana National Park, its diet is more variable in other rain forest habitats.
The diet of the fossa in the wild has been studied by analyzing their distinctive scats, which resemble gray cylinders with twisted ends and measure 10–14 cm (3.9–5.5 in) long by 1.5–2.5 cm (0.6–1.0 in) thick. Scat collected and analyzed from both Andohahela and Andringitra contained lemur matter and rodents. Eastern populations in Andringitra incorporate the widest recorded variety of prey, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates consumed ranged from reptiles to a wide variety of birds, including both understory and ground birds, and mammals, including insectivores, rodents, and lemurs. Invertebrates eaten by the fossa in the high mountain zone of Andringitra include insects and crabs. One study found that vertebrates comprised 94% of the diet of fossas, with lemurs comprising over 50%, followed by tenrecs (9%), lizards (9%), and birds (2%). Seeds, which comprised 5% of the diet, may have been in the stomachs of the lemurs eaten, or may have been consumed with fruit taken for water, as seeds were more common in the stomach in the dry season. The average prey size varies geographically; it is only 40 grams (1.4 oz) in the high mountains of Andringitra, in contrast to 480 grams (17 oz) in humid forests and over 1,000 grams (35 oz) in dry deciduous forests. In a study of fossa diet in the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar, more than 90% of prey items were vertebrates, and more than 50% were lemurs. The primary diet consisted of approximately six lemur species and two or three spiny tenrec species, along with snakes and small mammals. Generally, the fossa preys upon larger lemurs and rodents in preference to smaller ones.
Prey is obtained by hunting either on the ground or in the trees. During the non-breeding season the fossa hunts individually, but during the breeding season hunting parties may be seen, and these may be pairs or later on mothers and young. One member of the group scales a tree and chases the lemurs from tree to tree, forcing them down to the ground where the other is easily able to capture them. The fossa is known to eviscerate its larger lemur prey, a trait that, along with its distinct scat, helps identify its kills. Long-term observations of the fossa's predation patterns on rainforest sifakas suggest that the fossa hunts in a subsection of their range until prey density is decreased, then moves on. The fossa has been reported to prey on domestic animals, such as goats and small calves, and especially chickens. Food taken in captivity includes amphibians, birds, insects, reptiles, and small- to medium-sized mammals.
This wide variety of prey items taken in various rainforest habitats is similar to the varied dietary composition noted occurring in the dry forests of western Madagascar, as well. As the largest endemic predator on Madagascar, this dietary flexibility combined with a flexible activity pattern has allowed it to exploit a wide variety of niches available throughout the island, making it a potential keystone species for the Madagascar ecosystems.
Most of the details of reproduction in wild populations are from the western dry deciduous forests; determining whether or not certain of these details are applicable to eastern populations will require further field research. Mating typically occurs during September and October, although there are reports of its occurring as late as December, and can be highly conspicuous. In captivity in the Northern Hemisphere, fossas instead mate in the northern spring, from March to July. Intromission usually occurs in trees on horizontal limbs about 20 m (66 ft) off the ground. Frequently the same tree is used year after year, with remarkable precision as to the date the season commences. Trees are often near a water source, and have limbs strong enough and wide enough to support the mating pair, about 20 cm (7.9 in) wide. Some mating has been reported on the ground as well.
As many as eight males will be at a mating site, staying in close vicinity to the receptive female. The female seems to choose the male she mates with, and the males compete for the attention of the female with a significant amount of vocalization and antagonistic interactions. The female may choose to mate with several of the males, and her choice of mate does not seem to have any correlation to the physical appearance of the males. To stimulate the male to mount her, she gives a series of mewling vocalizations. The male mounts from behind, resting his body on her slightly off-center, a position requiring delicate balance; if the female were to stand, the male would have significant difficulty continuing. He places his paws on her shoulders or grasps her around the waist and often licks her neck. Mating may last for nearly three hours. This unusually lengthy mating is due to the physical nature of the male's erect penis, which has backwards-pointing spines along most of its length. Fossa mating includes a copulatory tie, which may be enforced by the male's spiny penis. The tie is difficult to break if the mating session is interrupted. Copulation with a single male may be repeated several times, with a total mating time of up to fourteen hours, while the male may remain with the female for up to an hour after the mating. A single female may occupy the tree for up to a week, mating with multiple males over that time. Also, other females may take her place, mating with some of the same males as well as others. This mating strategy, whereby the females monopolize a site and maximize the available number of mates, seems to be unique among carnivores. Recent research suggests that this system helps the fossa overcome factors which would normally impede mate-finding, such as low population density and lack of den use.
The birthing of the litter of one to six (typically two to four) takes place in a concealed location, such as an underground den, a termite mound, a rock crevice, or in the hollow of a large tree (particularly those of the Commiphora genus). Contrary to older research, litters are of mixed sexes. Young are born in December or January, making the gestation period 90 days, with the late mating reports indicating a gestational period of about six to seven weeks. The newborns are blind and toothless and weigh no more than 100 g (3.5 oz). The fur is thin and has been described as gray-brown or nearly white. After about two weeks the cubs' eyes open, they become more active, and their fur darkens to a pearl gray. The cubs do not take solid food until three months old, and do not leave the den until they are 4.5 months old; they are weaned shortly after that. After the first year, the juveniles are independent of their mother. Permanent teeth appear at 18 to 20 months. Physical maturity is reached by about two years of age, but sexual maturity is not attained for another year or two, and the young may stay with their mother until they are fully mature. Lifespan in captivity is up to or past 20 years of age, possibly due to the slow juvenile development.
The fossa has been assessed as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN Red List since 2008, as its population size has probably declined by at least 30% between 1987 and 2008; previous assessments have included "Endangered" (2000) and "Insufficiently Known" (1988, 1990, 1994). The species is dependent on forest and thus threatened by the widespread destruction of Madagascar's native forest but is also able to persist in disturbed areas. A suite of microsatellite markers (short segments of DNA that have a repeated sequence) have been developed to help aid in studies of genetic health and population dynamics of both captive and wild fossas. Several pathogens have been isolated from the fossa, some of which, such as anthrax and canine distemper, are thought to have been transmitted by feral dogs or cats. Toxoplasma gondii was reported in a captive fossa in 2013.
Although the species is widely distributed, it is locally rare in all regions, making fossas particularly vulnerable to extinction. The effects of habitat fragmentation increase the risk. For its size, the fossa has a lower than predicted population density, which is further threatened by Madagascar's rapidly disappearing forests and dwindling lemur populations, which make up a high proportion of its diet. The loss of the fossa, either locally or completely, could significantly impact ecosystem dynamics, possibly leading to over-grazing by some of its prey species. The total population of the fossa living within protected areas is estimated at less than 2,500 adults, but this may be an overestimate. Only two protected areas are thought to contain 500 or more adult fossas: Masoala National Park and Midongy-Sud National Park, although these are also thought to be overestimated. Too little population information has been collected for a formal population viability analysis, but estimates suggest that none of the protected areas support a viable population. If this is correct, the extinction of the fossa may take as much as 100 years to occur as the species gradually declines. In order for the species to survive, it is estimated that at least 555 km2 (214 sq mi) is needed to maintain smaller, short-term viable populations, and at least 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi) for populations of 500 adults.
Taboo, known in Madagascar as fady, offers protection for the fossa and other carnivores. In the Marolambo District (part of the Atsinanana region in Toamasina Province), the fossa has traditionally been hated and feared as a dangerous animal. It has been described as "greedy and aggressive", known for taking fowl and piglets, and believed to "take little children who walk alone into the forest". Some do not eat it for fear that it will transfer its undesirable qualities to anyone who consumes it. However, the animal is also taken for bushmeat; a study published in 2009 reported that 57% of villages (8 of 14 sampled) in the Makira forest consume fossa meat. The animals were typically hunted using slingshots, with dogs, or most commonly, by placing snare traps on animal paths. Near Ranomafana National Park, the fossa, along with several of its smaller cousins and the introduced small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), are known to "scavenge on the bodies of ancestors", which are buried in shallow graves in the forest. For this reason, eating these animals is strictly prohibited by fady. However, if they wander into villages in search of domestic fowl, they may be killed or trapped. Small carnivore traps have been observed near chicken runs in the village of Vohiparara.
Fossas are occasionally held in captivity in zoos. They first bred in captivity in 1974 in the zoo of Montpellier, France. The next year, at a time when there were only eight fossas in the world's zoos, the Duisburg Zoo in Germany acquired one; this zoo later started a successful breeding program, and most zoo fossas now descend from the Duisburg population. Research on the Duisburg fossas has provided much data about their biology.
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