The Malagasy Civet or Striped Civet (Fossa fossana) is native to and located throughout Madagascar only.
Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )
Other Geographic Terms: island endemic
Fossa fossana has a body length between 40 and 45 cm plus a tail that is 21 to 25 cm is length, with the female usually being longer. They weigh between 1.5 and 2 kg. with the male weighing more.
They have short, dense fur which is a brownish color and has 4 rows of dark spots running along the back. The ventral side is more lightly colored. The face resembles that of a fox, with a body about the size and shape of a house cat.
Range mass: 1.5 to 2 kg.
Range length: 40 to 45 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry
Average basal metabolic rate: 5.02262 W.
Madagascar Mangroves Habitat
The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).
Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).
A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.
Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.
Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).
Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.
Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).
There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.
There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).
There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.
- C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
- Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
Fossa fossana is found throughout most of Madagascar, from humid lowland forests to dryer higher elevations.
Habitat Regions: tropical
Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest ; scrub forest
Habitat and Ecology
Fossa fossana eat small mammals including rodents and tenrecs. They also feed on reptiles, frogs, small birds, and invertebrates including freshwater crabs.
They forage on the ground and in low trees and brush, and are usually active at night.
Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates, Insectivore , Eats non-insect arthropods)
Fossa fossana fills the ecological niche most commonly filled by fox or cat like animals.
Malagasy civets have very few natural predators as adults, but young animals may be eaten by snakes, birds, and other predators. They are also sometimes preyed upon by dogs that have been introduced to madagascar, and they are hunted by humans for food.
Fossa fossana uses camoflauge and the fact that it is nocturnal to avoid predators.
Known prey organisms
This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Life History and Behavior
Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical
Status: captivity: 21.4 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Fossa fossana form pairs around the time of mating, and each pair may have a home range of about a square mile during the mating season.
Mating System: monogamous
Mating occurs during August and September with a single young being born after three months. The young have a full coat of fur, and their eyes are open at birth. They walk around day three, eat meat after a month, and are weaned at two to three months.
Breeding season: August - September
Range number of offspring: 1 to 1.
Average gestation period: 3 months.
Range weaning age: 2 to 3 months.
Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); viviparous
Average birth mass: 67.5 g.
Average gestation period: 82 days.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 728 days.
The young stay with the parents until about one year of age, when they move on to find their own home ranges.
The current listing is based on a suspected population decrease in a range larger or equal to 20% over the last 10 years, along with a decrease in the size and quality of the habitat. The decrease is furthered by trapping of the civets for food, and competition with the Small Indian Civet (Viverricula indica)
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: appendix ii
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1994Vulnerable(Groombridge 1994)
- 1990Vulnerable(IUCN 1990)
- 1988Vulnerable(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
- 1986Insufficiently Known(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
The Striped Civet is beneficial to humans because it is hunted for food. It is also a popular attraction for tourists who can photograph it rather easily because it can be attracted to bait stations.
Positive Impacts: food ; ecotourism
The Malagasy civet is a small mammal, about 47 centimetres (19 in) long excluding the tail (which is only about 20 centimetres (7.9 in)). It can weigh 1.5 to 2.0 kilograms (3.3 to 4.4 lb). It is endemic to the tropical forests of Madagascar. Malagasy civets are nocturnal. It eats small vertebrates, insects, aquatic animals, and eggs stolen from birds' nests. The mating season of the Malagasy civet is August to September and the gestation period is three months, ending with the birth of one young. The Malagasy civet is listed as Near Threatened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The Malagasy civet was to be placed in the subfamily Hemigalinae with the banded palm civets and then in its own subfamily, Fossinae, because of similarities with others in the group pointed out by Gregory, but it is now classified as a member of the subfamily Euplerinae, after Pocock pointed out more similarities with that one.
The Malagasy civet is a small mammal, about 47 centimetres (19 in) long excluding the tail (which is only about 20 centimetres (7.9 in)). The males can weigh up to 1.9 kilograms (4.2 lb), and the females can weigh up to 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb). It is the second largest carnivore in Madagascar after the fossa. Its head is about It has the appearance and movements of a small fox. it may be confused with the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). It has a short coat greyish beige or brown in colour, with dark black horizontal stripes running from head to tail, where the stripes are vertical, wrapping around the bushier tail. The stripes morph into spots near the belly. Its legs are short and very thin.
The Malagasy civet is nocturnal, though sources disagree over whether it is solitary or, unusual among euplerids, lives in pairs. It is not a good climber and frequents ravines. It eats small vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, and amphibians), insects, aquatic animals, and eggs stolen from birds' nests. It is shy and secretive. Their vocalizations are similar to crying and groaning, as well as a sound similar to coq-coq. Pairs of males and females defend a large area (around 50 hectares (120 acres)) as their territory. In the winter, it may store fat in its tail, which can make up 25% of their weight. The mating season of the Malagasy civet is August to September and the gestation period is around three months, ending with the birth of one young. The young are rather well-developed, weigh around 65 to 70 grams (2.3 to 2.5 oz), and are weaned in two to three months, leaving their parents at around one year old. The average lifespan of a Malagasy civet is about 21 years in captivity.
Distribution and habitat
The Malagasy civet is found in lowland and rainforest areas of Eastern and Northern areas of Madagascar, and can also be found in humid and isolated forests in Amber Mountain National Park, and farther north in the less-humid forests of Ankarana Reserve. It can be found from sea level to 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) above sea level, but is only common up to 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level.
The Malagasy civet is listed as Near Threatened by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), with a decreasing population. Though threatened by deforestation, hunting, charcoal production, logging, and competition from introduced species such as dogs, cats, and small Indian civets, it is locally common. Introduced animals such as dogs are likely to prey of Malagasy civets. Its range is now reduced to isolated patches.
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