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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is a large epiphytic bromeliad, which has a very wide geographic distribution. The taxon occurs in Florida and Georgia, throughout Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, the West Indies, The Guyanas and in the north of Colombian, Venezuela and Brazil (Smith and Downs 1958, 1977; Oliva-Esteve 2000; Hammel et al. 2003; Espejo-Serna et al. 2005; Funk et al. 2007).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants clustering, flowering to 65 cm. Stems short. Leaves 20--50, many-ranked, erect to spreading, gray to gray-green, 25--50 ´ 1--2.5 cm, grayish-scaly; sheath dark rust colored toward base, broadly elliptic, flat, not forming pseudobulb, 3--4 cm wide; blade narrowly triangular, tapering evenly from base to apex, stiff, leathery, channeled to involute, apex attenuate. Inflorescences: scape conspicuous, erect or ascending, 10--35 cm, 4--8 mm diam.; bracts densely imbricate, erect to spreading, like leaves but gradually smaller; sheath of bracts narrowing gradually into blade; spikes erect to spreading, densely palmate to laxly 2(--3)-pinnate, narrowly elliptic, compressed, 5--20 ´ 1.5--2.5 cm, apex acute; lateral branches 3--15. Floral bracts imbricate, erect, red, red-yellow-green, or green, broad (covering all or most of rachis, rachis not visible at anthesis), elliptic, keeled, 2--4.8 ´ 1.2--2 cm, thin-leathery, base not visible at anthesis, apex acute, surfaces glabrous or slightly scaly toward apex, venation even to slight. Flowers 10--50, conspicuous; sepals with adaxial pair connate, lanceolate, to 1/2 keeled, to 4.2 cm, leathery, slightly veined, apex acute, surfaces glabrous to slightly scaly; corolla tubular, petals erect, violet (white), ligulate, 5--6 cm; stamens exserted; stigma exserted, conduplicate-spiral. Fruits to 4 cm.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species has a very large and ecologically diverse native range, which suggest broad environmental tolerance. It has been collected in various habitats both, mesic and xeric (such as rainforest and seasonally dry forest, mixed leaf forest, montane and cloud forest, dry thickets and woods, swamps). It is reported to favour dry, protected sites, in full sun and to grow in dense masses on tree trunks but is also found in shady sites. The species mainly grows as an epiphyte although some varieties are more rarely saxicolous. The taxon has a multi chambered water-impounding tank and multiple ecophysiological adaptations which have been widely studied. It flowers from May to January. The species is a very variable species which may change in size and forms according to the habitat (Smith and Downs 1958, 1977; Oliva-Esteve 2000; Hammel et al. 2003; Espejo-Serna et al. 2005). The species is very variable in size (20 cm to 1 m) and forms. The plants are stemless, have grey to grey-green leaves which form a cratiferous rosette, a compound inflorescence with inconspicuous flowers in the axils of showy, creamy yellow, reddish, orange to yellow floral bracts and lilac petals (Smith and Downs 1958, 1977; Oliva-Esteve 2000; Hammel et al. 2003; Espejo-Serna et al. 2005).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Depth range based on 4 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Tillandsia fasciculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tillandsia fasciculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Romand-Monnier, F. & Contu, S.

Reviewer/s
Scott, J.A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Tillandsia fasciculata has a wide geographical and ecological range, which suggests broad environmental tolerance. It is also generally recorded to be common throughout its range, hence the species is rated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species appears to be common and widespread in most of its geographic range. The taxon grows in clusters forming dense masses on tree trunks (Smith 1958, Oliva-Esteve and Steyermark 1987, Morales 2000).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Many epiphytes have experienced dramatic population decreases mainly because of habitat loss and extraction activities (Mondragon et al. 2006). Threats include logging, urban sprawl, conversion to agricultural land, fires, road construction and tourism. Read (1989) warned that grey leaved Tillandsia are the ones most at risk from the horticultural trade. Tillandsia fasciculata is widely used for Christmas decoration and ornamental use in large parts of its native range and is likely to be collected for the horticultural trade. How these harvests affect the population is unknown. However, protocols to micropropagate the taxon have been developed which may release the pressure on wild subpopulations. Climate change may affect the population dynamics of this species as the frequency of dry years is likely to increase in tropical dry forest (Mondragon et al. 2006) as well as the frequency of hurricanes. Epiphytes populations which are commonly limited in their number of microsites to germinate and have high seedling mortality may be primarily affected by local climate change through their seedling stage. Drier years result in increased seedling mortality (Oberbauer 1996, Winkler et al. 2008). Bromeliad are frequently highly sensitive to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbances. However, this species shows very good ability to recolonize after disturbance (Boneh et al. 2003) and frequently occurs in secondary, heavily logged forests, in thickets along roadside and highways and in cultivated and managed areas. There is often a higher abundance of Tillandsia species compared to other bromeliad species and types of epiphytes associated with disturbed sites where higher light and drought stress are common (Reyes-Garcia et al. 2008).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has been collected within several conservation units and a fairly large part of its range benefit from habitat protection. The impact of collections on subpopulations is unknown and should be monitored. Micropropagation protocols have been developed for the taxon, which has been widely studied for its ecophysiological properties. Protocols for sustainable harvesting of a common Bromeliad have been developed in Chiapas. The species should be monitored to make sure of the status and health of the populations.
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Wikipedia

Tillandsia beutelspacheri

Tillandsia beutelspacheri is a species of the genus Tillandsia. This species is native to Mexico.

Cultivars[edit]

References[edit]


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Tillandsia fasciculata

Tillandsia fasciculata, commonly known as the Giant Airplant,[2] is a species of bromeliad that is native to Costa Rica, Mexico, Venezuela and Florida in the United States.[3]

Cultivars

References

  1. ^ Isley, Paul T.. Tillandsia: the World's Most Unusual Air Plants. Volume 1. Botanical Press. p. 54.
  2. ^ a b "Tillandsia fasciculata". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=42364. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  3. ^ Neyland, Ray (2009). Wildflowers of the Coastal Plain: A Field Guide. Louisiana State University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-80-713407-8.
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