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BiologyOccurs in diverse habitats from free flowing clear water streams, well up into the valleys, to slow turbid waters, water courses, irrigation and drainage ditches, and ponds on the plains (Ref. 11225). Rests in vegetation during the day and is active at night (Ref. 6858). Adults feed on fish; juveniles feed on crustacean and insect larvae (Ref. 26543), shrimps and other small invertebrates (Ref. 12225). Spawn in pits located in shallow water at a temperature of about 26°C (Ref. 205). Males guard the nests even after the eggs have hatched (Ref. 205). Reaches more than 3 kg (Mark Fitzgerald, pers. comm., 2001). Live fish are difficult to handle and potentially dangerous because of their sharp teeth, strong jaws, and slippery bodies.