Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabit rocky reefs (Ref. 9702). Also occur in estuaries (Ref. 9563). Juveniles mainly inhabit inlets, bays and other shallow, sheltered marine waters, often over mud and seagrass (Ref. 6390). Small fish measuring less than 30 cm TL are common inshore around reef areas often in groups of around 30 individuals. Larger fish are shy and are less frequently seen (Ref. 26966). Adults often live near reefs, but are also found over mud and sand substrates (Ref. 6390). They are relatively sedentary. However, tagging studies have shown them capable of substantial migrations (Ref. 28591). Crustaceans (crabs, shrimps, etc) form the basis of the diet, but marine worms, starfish, sea urchins, shellfish and fish are also important (Ref. 28591). Not commercially cultured at present but considered as a prime aquaculture candidate (Ref. 28590). Maximum estimated age for SW Pacific is 54 years with validated longevity on the order of 40 years based on minimum age from bomb radiocarbon dating (Ref. 92924; Allen Andrews, pers.comm. 01/13).
  • Paulin, C.D. 1990 Pagrus auratus, a new combination for the species known as "snapper" in Australasian waters (Pisces: Sparidae). N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 24(2):259-265. (Ref. 28569)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

The Pink Snapper, Pagrus auratus, is distributed around the coastal waters of New Zealand, Australia, China, and Japan. The area in which this species is distributed is approximately 16, 359, 123 km2.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

West Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Indo-Pacific: widely occurring off New Zealand, Australia, Philippines, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, and Japan. Populations in the northern and southern hemispheres are independent and isolated but were similar enough to be declared one and the same species (Ref. 28569, 28591).
  • Paulin, C.D. 1990 Pagrus auratus, a new combination for the species known as "snapper" in Australasian waters (Pisces: Sparidae). N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 24(2):259-265. (Ref. 28569)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

West Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean off Australia.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 1300 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Maximum size: 1300 mm TL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

130 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)); max. published weight: 20.0 kg (Ref. 28591); max. reported age: 54 years (Ref. 92924)
  • Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene 1990 Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
  • Hayes, E. 1994 Snapper in New South Wales. NSW Fisheries Fishnote DF/37. 4 p. (Ref. 28591)
  • Kalish, J.M. 1993 Pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in fish otoliths. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 114(1993):549-554. (Ref. 92924)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The Pink Snapper is a demersal species and can be found to depths of 200 m, although is most abundant at depths of 15 m - 60 m. This species forms large aggregations within the continental shelf and inhabits a wide range of habitats from rocky reefs to areas of sand and mud substrates. Individuals prey upon a number of organisms including crustaceans, marine worms, starfish, shellfish, and smaller fishes. This species can live up to 60 years old and has a very low natural rate of mortality. Individuals are capable of substantial migrations (Hayes 1994).

Snapper congregate prior to spawning and move on to the spawning ground around November to December. They are serial spawners, releasing eggs over the spring and summer months. The young will school in shallow waters, and move into deeper waters in the winter months.

The global population of Pink Snapper exists in a number of subpopulations due to genetic isolation of the northern and southern hemisphere (D. Paulin pers. comm. 2008). This is also seen on a regional scale. In New Zealand there is little mixing between the East Northland and Hauraki Gulf Snapper. This is also seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia where there is evidence to suggest that there is little if any mixing between coastal and ocean snapper (Edwards et al. 1989, 1999; Johnson et al. 1986; Moran et al. 1998, 2003; Nahas et al. 2003).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 200m.
Recorded at 200 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 28569)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
  • Paulin, C.D. 1990 Pagrus auratus, a new combination for the species known as "snapper" in Australasian waters (Pisces: Sparidae). N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 24(2):259-265. (Ref. 28569)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 0 - 200m.
Recorded at 200 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Juvenile snapper leave the midwater zone to inhabit reefs or rocky outcrops when they are 12 months of age and about 6 cm long (Ref. 6390). They are most abundant in seagrass beds and are also associated with reef and gravel areas (Ref. 30572). As they grow, they move into deeper water and aggregate on near inshore reefs (Ref. 30572). In New Zealand, juvenile snapper (less than 25 cm FL) are caught in water 0-25 m deep (Ref. 30575). In southern Australia, juvniles and post-flexion larvae enter estuaries at floodtides (Ref. 30576).In New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, the older juveniles and young adults progressively move to coastal and offshore waters and some individuals also migrate substantial distances along the coastline (Ref. 6390).
  • Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve 1993 Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia. 422 p. (Ref. 6390)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Unicolax Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Proctoeces Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Philometra Infestation 1. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lamellodiscus Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diphtherostomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cucullanus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Choricotyle Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Bivagina Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Anisakis Disease (juvenile). Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Sharples, A.D. and C.W. Evans 1995 Metazoan parasites of the snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), in New Zealand. 1. Prevalence and abundance. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 29(2):195-201. (Ref. 45519)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Mature adults form large schools in preferred spawning areas (Ref. 6390). They are serial spawners (Ref. 6390). Spawning generally occurs in waters less than 50 m deep (Ref. 6390). They generally only spawn when water temp is equal to 18°C (Ref. 6390).There have been no investigations of sex reversals in Australian snapper populations. However, in New Zealand, some juvenile snapper change sex from female to male but all such changes are completed by the onset of maturity (Ref. 28040).
  • Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve 1993 Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia. 422 p. (Ref. 6390)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pagrus auratus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Carpenter, K., Matsuura, K., Collette, B., Nelson, J., Dooley, J., Fritzsche, R. & Fricke, R.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.

Contributor/s
De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.

Justification
The validity of the Pink Snapper, Pagrus auratus, is currently under review and therefore this species is Data Deficient at present.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Pagrus auratus is described as the dominant species in inshore communities of northern New Zealand.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Pink Snapper is one of the most commercially important fisheries in New Zealand (Paul and Tarring 1980), Australia, and Japan. It is also an important recreational fishery. It is harvested using a number of methods including set lines, bottom trawls, pair trawls and midwater trawls.

Over the past 25 years, the snapper fisheries of Australia and New Zealand were described as over-exploited as stocks showed signs of collapse. In New Zealand, snapper landings peaked at 18,000 tonnes, however by the mid 1980s the catches had declined to 8,500 - 9,000 tonnes. Since then New Zealand implemented one of the most comprehensive Quota Mangement Systems to manage the remaining stock and set Total Allowable Commercial Catch limits based on the biological maximum sustainable yield (BMSY).

The New Zealand snapper fishery is split into 10 Quota Management Areas (QMA). Four areas of the fishery, SNA1, SNA2, SNA7 and SNA8, account for nearly all of the total landings. Within SNA1, there are 2 sub-stocks, East Northland and Hauraki Gulf/ Bay of Plenty. A stock assessment of the East Northland sub-stock indicates that the population currently meets the BMSY reference point and is expected to exceed this (67% probability) come the end of the 20 year projection period. The Hauraki Gulf stock currently falls below the BMSY reference point, but there is a 100% probability that it will exceed this point within the projection period. Estimates from SNA2 indicate that the stock is near or just below the BMSY but is expected to exceed this level by 2011, assuming fishing effort, landings, and natural mortality remain constant. The stock in SNA7 is thought to be well above the BMSY and will continue to further increase even if future landings were significantly larger than at present. The stock in SNA8 is thought to be below the BMSY, however estimates from this assessment were considered unreliable due to model error.

Analysis of the Queensland fishery stock, has been controversial. Most data on the stock is derived from recreational and commercial landings. Recreational data imples that the stock is in severe decline and below the BMSY, while commercial data would suggest that the stock is in a slow rate of decline. There are at present, concerns about the long-term sustainability of this fishery as fishing effort moves further north to new fishing grounds.

At present there is no evidence to suggest that stocks in the Shark Bay Snapper Fishery are below reference points or limits. Estimates of the stock indicate that 70% of the virgin stock biomass still remains.

In 1988, the Japanese successfully cultured 45,000 tonnes of Pink Snapper, three times the amount that is harvested from wild stocks. Other countries, such as New Zealand and Australia, are running trial aquaculture experiments in an attempt to aid recovery of exploited stocks.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are now a range of conservation measures in place for the long-term sustainability of global Pink Snapper stocks. Most of the commercial and recreational fisheries have imposed TACC and recreational bag limits based on the biological maximum sustainable yield, in an attempt to aid recovery of over-fished stocks. The distribution of this species also covers a number of marine protected areas including the Okakari Point Marine Reserve and the Tawharanui Marine Park in New Zealand.

Since the 1980s, Japan has managed to successfully culture this species on a commercial scale and now obtains 75% of its annual quota from captive bred stock. New Zealand and Australia are both developing their aquaculture industries in an attempt to alleviate pressure on wild populations.

Further research on the stock status of the Queensland and New South Wales fisheries is needed before wild stocks collapse. In consideration of the genetic isolation of stocks, seen on both a global and localised scale, future conservation efforts should seek to protect spawning grounds.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott 1991 World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
  • Bell, J.D., N. Quartararo and G.W. Henry 1991 Growth of snapper, Pagrus auratus, from south-eastern Australia in captivity. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 25(2):117-121. (Ref. 28588)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Australasian snapper

The Australasian snapper or silver seabream, Pagrus auratus, is a species of porgie found in coastal waters of Philippines, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, Japan, New Zealand, and Australia; its distribution areas in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are disjunct.[3] Although it is almost universally known in New Zealand and Australia as snapper, it does not belong to the Lutjanidae family of snappers. It is highly prized as an eating fish.

The taxonomic status of this species is being debated, and it may be referred to as either Pagrus auratus or Chrysophrys auratus.[1][3]

Regional variation in naming[edit]

Large snapper caught off Frankston, Victoria, in 1893

Australia: cocknies (young smaller than legal size), red bream or pinkies (legal size), squire or squirefish (when bigger), snapper (at full size)

Western Australia: "pink snapper"[4] to distinguish it from unrelated species[5]

Victoria: also schnapper (ref: Schnapper Point, Mornington)

South Australia: the name "ruggers" is often used for smaller fish of legal size

Aboriginal people of the Port Jackson area in Australia: they called it wollamie[6] (also spelt wollamai, and other variations). European colonists there knew it as the "light horseman", for the resemblance of the fish's skull to the helmet of a light horseman.[7]

New Zealand: snapper (or New Zealand snapper when there is need to distinguish from other species of snapper). New Zealand Māori: tamure (adult fish), karati (juveniles)[8]

Habitat[edit]

Capture of wild Australasian snapper in thousand tonnes, 1950–2010, as reported by the FAO [2]

The Australasian snapper is found on all coasts of New Zealand, especially in the north. In Australia, it is found along the south coast, mainly near Kiama, Berry, Gerringong, Gerroa, Huskisson, Vincentia, and Shoalhaven. It is also found on the coast of Tasmania, but in smaller numbers. The fish spawn in inshore waters and live in rocky areas and reefs of up to 200 m deep. They school, and will migrate between reefs. Larger fish are known to enter estuaries and harbours, for example Port Phillip Bay has a renowned seasonal snapper run.

Growth rates within the wild stocks vary with some (i.e. the Hauraki Gulf, NZ) growing rapidly and to a smaller maximum length, while stocks in east and west Australia are known to grow more slowly. The species is capable of living about 40 years throughout much of its range in Australia, and the Australian recordholder of 40 years and 10 months was a 935-mm large-nosed male, caught on 1 September 2007 off Bunbury, West Australia, and photographed on the day of capture.[9] Sexual maturity is reached at about 30 cm long and a small percentage of the males will turn into females at puberty. Large individuals of both sexes develop a prominent hump on the head.[10] Anglers are advised not to take immature fish, so as not to reduce breeding stock. The legal size in Australia varies by state, from 35 cm and a bag limit of five fish per person in Queensland to 50 cm in Western Australia. During spawing, these fish obtain a metallic green sheen which indicates a high concentration of acid buildup within the scales' infrastructure. Minimum sizes are supposed to be designed to allow these fish to participate in spawning runs at least once before they become available to the fishery, but given the slow growth rates of this species, a need exists to consider area closures and/or further increasing the minimum sizes in each state to reduce the chances of growth overfishing of the various populations of snapper throughout its range. This may be important with recent developments in technology such as GPS.

Fisheries[edit]

Aquaculture production of farmed Australasian snapper in thousand tonnes, 1950–2010, as reported by the FAO [2]

Catches of Australasian snapper have varied between 25,600 and 34,300 tonnes in 2000–2009, with Japan and New Zealand reporting the largest catches.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carpenter, K., Matsuura, K., Collette, B., Nelson, J., Dooley, J., Fritzsche, R. & Fricke, R. (2010). "Pagrus auratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Based on data sourced from the FishStat database
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Chrysophrys auratus" in FishBase. September 2012 version.
  4. ^ "Relationships among partial and whole lengths and weights for Western Australian Pink Snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) - Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, Fish for the Future". Archived from the original on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-22. 
  5. ^ "Fishing Australia with the Definitive Aussie Interactive Sports Fishing Website! - Sportsfish Australia". Archived from the original on 3 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-22. 
  6. ^ Australian Aboriginal Words in English, R. M. W. Dixon, Oxford University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-19-553099-3
  7. ^ Matthew Flinders. A Voyage to Terra Australis, volume 1 at Project Gutenberg, entry for 3 May 1802
  8. ^ Snapper, New Zealand's Greatest Fish, Te Ika Rangatira o Aotearoa, Sam Mossman, AUT Media, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9582829-6-3
  9. ^ Norriss, J.V.; Crisafulli, B. (2010). "Longevity in Australian Snapper". Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 93: 129–32. 
  10. ^ Dianne J. Bray & Martin F. Gomon, 2011, Snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Fishes of Australia, accessed 09 Sep 2014, http://www.fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/678
  11. ^ FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2011). Yearbook of fishery and aquaculture statistics 2009. Capture production. Rome: FAO. p. 162. 
  • Allan, Richard (1990). Australian Fish and How to Catch Them. Landsdowne Publishing. ISBN 1-86302-674-6. 
  • "Snapper". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1966. Retrieved 2006-07-22. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!