Overview

Distribution

G. pulex in Ireland

Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus). Introduced into Northern Ireland in 1958-59, since when it has expanded its range to become the dominant amphipod there, replacing G. duebeni celticus in Lough Neagh and River Lagan. Now also found in small numbers in River Liffey and lower R. Boyne, Republic of Ireland. Its competitive interactions have been studied by J. Dick, among others. A similar replacement of G. duebeni by G. pulex has been reported in Brittany by A. Dunn.

  • McLoughlin, Noreen and Reynolds, Julian. (2000). The biogeography and current status of Gammarus duebeni Liljeborg and Gammarus pulex (L.) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in freshwater in the Republic of Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 24, 142-152.
  • McLoughlin, Noreen and Reynolds, Julian. (2001). Further records for the introduced species Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Republic of Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 26 (12), 460-463.
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Ecology

Associations

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
cystacanth of Acanthocephalus ranae endoparasitises body cavity of Gammarus pulex

Animal / endozoite
cyst of Crepidostomum faronis lives within body of Gammarus pulex

Animal / endozoite
cyst of Crepidostomum metoecus lives within body of Gammarus pulex

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
Cystidicola farionis endoparasitises Gammarus pulex

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
cystacanth of Echinorhynchus clavula endoparasitises Gammarus pulex

Animal / parasite / endoparasite
acanthella of Polymorphus minutus endoparasitises body cavity of Gammarus pulex

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Known predators

Gammarus pulex is prey of:
Actinopterygii

Based on studies in:
UK: Yorkshire, Aire, Nidd & Wharfe Rivers (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • E. Percival and H. Whitehead, 1929. A quantitative study of the fauna of some types of stream-bed. J. Ecol. 17:282-314, from p. 311 & overleaf.
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Known prey organisms

Gammarus pulex preys on:
Chironomidae
detritus
Bacillariophyceae
encrusting algae
algae
plant tissue
Ephemeroptera

Based on studies in:
UK: Yorkshire, Aire, Nidd & Wharfe Rivers (River)
Wales, Dee River (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • E. Percival and H. Whitehead, 1929. A quantitative study of the fauna of some types of stream-bed. J. Ecol. 17:282-314, from p. 311 & overleaf.
  • R. M. Badcock, 1949. Studies in stream life in tributaries of the Welsh Dee. J. Anim. Ecol. 18:193-208, from pp. 202-206 and Price, P. W., 1984, Insect Ecology, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, p. 23
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gammarus pulex

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

GGAGCTTGGGCTAGTGTTGTTGGCACTTCCATA---AGAGTAATTATTCGTTCAGAGCTAAGTAGACCAGGTAATTTAATCGATGAT---GACCAACTGTATAACGTCATAGTCACCGCTCACGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATGCCTATTATAATTGGGGGTTTCGGAAATTGATTAGTACCTTTAATA---TTAGGTAGACCTGATATGGCTTTCCCGCGAATAAACAATATAAGATTTTGACTTTTACCTCCTTCCCTAACACTTCTGCTTATAAGTAGTATAGTAGAAAGAGGGGTAGGAACAGGGTGAACGGTGTACCCACCGTTAGCAGGTATTTCAGCTCACGGAGGCGGAGCTGTAGACTTG---GCTATTTTCTCATTACATCTGGCAGGAGCCTCCTCTATCCTAGGTGCCATTAATTTTATCTNTACTGTAATCAATATACGTAGACCTGGTATATCTATAGACCAAACACCTCTTTTTGTTTGGTCTGTCTTTATCACAGCTATCTTACTCCTCTTATCCTTACCTGTTTTAGCCGGG---GCTATCACAATACTCCTGACAGACCGTAACTTAAATACTTCTTTCTTTGACCCGAGCGGCGGAGGAGATCCTATTTTATACCAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gammarus pulex

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Gammarus pulex

Gammarus pulex is a species of amphipod crustacean found in fresh water across much of Europe. It is a greyish animal, growing to 21 mm (0.83 in) long.

Contents

Description

Adult males of Gammarus pulex may reach a total length of 21 millimetres (0.83 in), while females only grow to 14 mm (0.55 in).[1] The adults have a robust appearance; they are typically greyish with markings in dark brown or green.[1]

Distribution

G. pulex is found across most of Europe from the Volga drainage in the east to the British Isles in the west.[2][3] It is absent from Norway, parts of Scotland, and Ireland,[2] although it was introduced to Lough Neagh in the 1950s, where it is replacing the native Gammarus duebeni.[4]

Taxonomic history

Gammarus pulex was one of the species included in the 10th edition of Carl Linnaeus' Systema Naturae, which marks the starting point for zoological nomenclature, in 1758. Linnaeus called the species Cancer pulex, the specific epithet pulex being Latin for "flea". His description was, however, vague, and could apply to "nearly every species of amphipod".[1] Some of Linnaeus' references refer to freshwater species, while others refer to marine species. The application of the name was settled in 1970 by the redescription of the species and the selection of a neotype from a stream on the Swedish island of Öland.[1]

The name Rivulogammarus has been used for a part of the genus Gammarus when it is split into smaller genera, and G. pulex has sometimes been called Rivulogammarus pulex. This name is, however, invalid under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since G. pulex is the type species of the genus Gammarus, and the genus that contains it must therefore be named Gammarus.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b c d S. Pinkster (1970). "Redescription of Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758) based on neotype material (Amphipoda)". Crustaceana 18 (2): 177–186. doi:10.1163/156854070X00798. JSTOR 20101677.
  2. ^ a b David M. Holdich & Manfred Pöckl (2007). "Invasive crustaceans in European inland waters". In Francesca Gherardi. Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Volume 2 of Invading Nature. Springer. pp. 29–76. ISBN 978-1-4020-6028-1. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=RNfRJvCXbe4C&pg=PA39.
  3. ^ Takhteev VV, Sidorov DA (2012). "Razonoobrazie i raspredelenie amfipod kontinentalnykh vod severnoi Evrazii". Aktualnye problemy izucheniya rakoobraznyh kontinentalnyh vod. pp. 102-107. ISBN 978-5-91806-009-4.
  4. ^ C. E. Carter & P. M. Murphy (1993). "The macroinvertebarate fauna of Lough Neagh". In R. B. Wood & R. V. Smith. Lough Neagh: the ecology of a multipurpose water resource. Volume 69 of Monographiae Biologicae. Springer. pp. 339–367. ISBN 978-0-7923-2112-5. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=01Qb0J-0gxQC&pg=PA339.
  5. ^ Jan Hendrik Stock (1969). "Rivulogammarus, an amphipod name that must be rejected". Crustaceana 17 (1): 106–107. doi:10.1163/156854069X00105.
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