The distribution of Ourebia ourebi is patchy and discontinuous throughout the grasslands of central and southern Africa. It is found in the moist areas of Northern and Southern savanna, across Guinea Savanna to Ethiopia and south through western East Africa to Tanzania (Estes, 1991).
Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )
Haggard’s Oribi is entirely isolated from other forms in coastal Kenya to southern Somalia (Hillman et al. 1998; East 1999).
The Kenya Oribi formerly occurred on the lower slopes of Mount Kenya but is now extinct (Hillman et al. 1998; East 1999).
The oribi has silky, yellow to reddish-brown coat with white fur on underparts of body and rump. Also, it has a distinctive white line of fur over its eye and a bare, dark patch beneath each ear. Ourebia ourebi also has a tuft of long hair on each "knee" and a short black tail (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004). It has very distinct preorbital glands that fill most of the space between the eye and mouth. These glands appear as vertical folds on the side of the face. The oribi stands about 50-66cm to the shoulder and has a body length ranging from 92-110cm. It has very long legs and neck. Males have small, spike like horns that range from 8-19cm in length (Smith, 1985).
Range mass: 12 to 22 kg.
Range length: 92 to 110 cm.
Sexual Dimorphism: ornamentation
- Smith, Stephen J., 1985. The Atlas of Africa's Principal Mammals. Republic of South Africa: Natural History Books.
- Encyclopedia Britannica, 2004. "Oribi" (On-line). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed 11/01/04 at http://search.eb.com/eb/article?tocId=9057366.
Habitat and Ecology
Ourebia ourebi live in open grasslands. They prefer short grasses with patchy areas of tall grasses to provide hiding places. They like grasslands that are not extremely tall or dense and with some bushes. They avoid steep slopes.
Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; scrub forest
The oribi is both a grazer and browser. It grazes during the wet season when fresh grass is readily available, and it browses when drought occurs and fresh grass is less common. This herbivorous mammal consumes at least eleven different herbs and eats the foliage from seven different trees. It has also been known to visit mineral licks every one to three days (Kingdon, 1982).
Natural enemies of the oribi include leopards, caracals and pythons. Young oribi also are threatened by jackals, the Libyan wildcat, ratels, baboons, eagles and monitors.
Life History and Behavior
Status: wild: 8 to 12 years.
Status: captivity: 14.0 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Ourebia ourebi breeds throughout the year, with its peak season in October and November (Openshaw, 1993). The oribi has a monogomous to polygynous mating system with the males maintaining the territory and sharing it with one to two or more females. Females are able to conceive as early as ten months and males are sexually active by fourteen months (Estes, 1991). Their gestation period lasts from six to seven months and one young is borne at a time.
Breeding interval: Breed once per year.
Breeding season: Can breed year-round, peak in October-November.
Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Range gestation period: 6 to 7 months.
Range weaning age: 4 to 5 months.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 months.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 14 months.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous
Average birth mass: 2235 g.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 426 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 304 days.
Parental Investment: altricial
- Estes, R. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.
- Openshaw, P. 1993. Mass capture of antelope, buffalo, giraffe, and zebra. A McKenzie, ed. The Capture and Care Manual: Capture, Care, Accommodation, and Transportation of Wild African Animals. Wildlife Decision Support Services. Accessed November 01, 2004 at http://wildnetafrica.co.za/estate/capturecare/.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Ourebia ourebi
There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen. Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ourebia ourebi
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/conservation dependent
The combination of continued agricultural and urban development, bush encroachment and increased vulnerability to poachers threatens the persistance Ourebia ourebi.
Protected areas (parks, wildlife refuges) exist to provide a safe environment for this species. The IUCN has listed the species as "Lower Risk, but Conservation Dependent." This means that if current conservation efforts were ended, the species would be in greater danger of extinction.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 750,000. Population trend is stable in many protected areas but decreasing in some others which receive minimal or no protection. Outside protected areas, population trend is gradually downwards in many parts of the Oribi’s range as human populations increase and settlement expands, although its populations are stable in some thinly settled, unprotected regions where hunting pressures are relatively low.
The total numbers of Haggard’s Oribi are probably in the thousands.
Haggard’s Oribi occurs in Boni-Dodori National Reserve in Kenya and Bush Bush N.P. in Somalia, but there is no information available on its status.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Ourebia ourebi occasionally cause damage to field crops such as wheat and oats because these foods resemble their natural diet (Kingdon, 1982).
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Oribi grow to around 92–110 cm (36 to 43 in) in length, with a shoulder height of 50–66 cm (20 to 26 in) and weigh an average of 12–22 kg (26 to 49 lb). They can run at speeds of up to 40–50 km/h (25–31 mph). In captivity, they have lifespans of up to 14 years.
The back and upper chest is yellow to orange-brown. The chin, throat, chest, belly and rump are white. The tail is short and bushy, the upper side black or dark brown, and the under surface white. The white, crescent-shaped band of fur above the eye helps to distinguish this species from other similar-looking antelope. Below each ear is a large, round, black, glandular patch, the nostrils are prominently red, and on the sides of the face are vertical creases that house the preorbital glands. These glands produce an odorous secretion used to mark the oribi's territory. Only males grow horns, which are slender and upright, ridged to about halfway up, the ends being smooth and pointed, with some of length 19 cm (7.5 in) being recorded.
Distribution and habitat
Oribi are found in most countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from Senegal to west and central Ethiopia and southern Somalia, southward into eastern Kenya, across into north Botswana, Uganda, and Angola, with patchy and discontinuous distribution through Mozambique, Zimbabwe and into central and eastern South Africa.
They typically inhabit open grasslands or thinly bushed country, preferring habitats with short grasses on which to graze, interspersed with tall grasses which provide cover from predators and the elements. Oribi are highly water-dependent and tend to avoid steep slopes.
During the breeding season, August to December, the male will mate with all the females which share his territory. Usually, only one or two females are present in each territory. Following a gestation period of six to seven months, a single offspring is born. For the first eight to 10 weeks the female oribi hides her young in thick grass, where it will lie motionless if approached. The mother returns periodically to suckle her offspring. Young are weaned at about four to five months. Females reach sexual maturity at 10 months, males at 14 months.
Primarily grazers, oribi prefer to eat short grasses, but will browse on leaves, foliage and young shoots during the dry season. They are often seen in burnt areas after veld fires, returning to the area to eat the fresh grass shoots. The oribi also use mineral licks to supplement their diets.
Oribi fall prey to numerous animals, including lions, leopards, caracals, hyenas, African wild dogs, jackals, crocodiles and pythons. Young are also taken by eagles, genets and other small carnivores.
Oribi are found on their own, in pairs, or in small groups of one male with two or more females. Resting during the heat of the day, oribi are most active in the morning, late afternoon and evening. When alarmed, they produce a shrill whistle. Often, they do not attempt to flee until an intruder is within a few meters, remaining motionless in the grass, relying on camouflage. If threatened, they gallop away, bounding stiff-legged into the air every few strides; a behaviour known as stotting.
Threats and conservation
Oribi populations in many areas are threatened by human activities, such as:
- Habitat destruction - Grasslands are lost to expanding settlement, commercial forestry, intensive commercial farming, grassland degradation due to overstocking, poor use of fire, erosion and mining.
- Illegal hunting - Trapping with snares and hunting with dogs are serious threats, and has led to the demise of many oribi populations in South Africa.
- Inappropriate management - In many areas where oribi are present, farm management practices (impenetrable fences, poor burning practices, poor veld management, domestic dogs) do not allow oribi to coexist. Sport hunting of oribi at unsustainable levels also threaten their survival.
Oribi occur in several protected areas and are the subject of a WWF Species Project. This project aims to track captive-bred oribi after their release into appropriate habitat to research their home ranges and habitat preferences. The long-term aim of the project is to establish viable wild populations from captive-bred stock.
These subspecies have been described:
- Ourebia ourebi aequatoria (Uganda)
- O. o. cottoni (Tanzania)
- O. o. dorcas (Chad)
- O. o. gallarum (Central Ethiopia)
- O. o. goslingi (North Zaire)
- O. o. haggardi (Northern Kenya)
- O. o. hastata (Zaire, Malawi, Zimbabwe)
- O. o. kenyae (Kenya)
- O. o. montana (Sudan to west Ethiopia)
- O. o. ourebi (South Africa)
- O. o. quadriscopa (Senegal to Nigeria)
- O. o. rutila (Angola)
- O. o. ugandae (Uganda)