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BiologyAdults occur in still waters of streams and swamps where it is usually seen near the surface or close to shore among aquatic vegetation (Ref. 2847, 44894). Solitary, territorial and spawn prior to the wet season when surface water temperatures approach 30°C (Ref. 44894). Young feed primarily on microcrustaceans (Ref. 2847). Primarily a surface feeder, feeding on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic insects, small fishes, frogs, crustaceans, and some plant material (Ref. 44894). Mouthbrooders (Ref. 56180). Maximum weight reported in Ref. 5259 may be 12.27 kg (W. Lau, pers. Comm. 07/05). Important food fish (Ref. 58511) and a valuable aquarium fish (Ref. 83518).