The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2004. pre-press, American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31
  • Borowsky B. 1980. Reproductive patterns of three intertidal salt-marsh gammaridean amphipods. Marine Biology 55:327-334.
  • Bousfield EL. 1969. New records of Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Middle Atlantic Region. Chesapeake Science 10:1-17.
  • Bousfield EL. 1973. Shallow-water gammaridean Amphipoda of New England. Corell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 312p.
  • Christian RR, Luczkovich JJ (1999) Organizing and understanding a winter’s seagrass foodweb network through effective trophic levels. Ecol Model 117:99–124
  • Clarke A. 1982. Temperature and embryonic development in polar marine invertebrates. International Journal of Invertebrate Reproduction 5:71-82.
  • Duffy EJ, MacDonald KS, Rhode JM, and J. Parker. 2001. Grazer diversity, functional redundancy, and productivity in seagrass beds: An experimental test. Ecology 82:2417-2434.
  • Duffy JE and ME Hay. 1994. Herbivore resistance to seaweed chemical defense: The roles of mobility and predation risk. Ecology 75:1304-1319.
  • Duffy JE and ME Hay. 2000. Strong impacts of grazing amphipods on the organization of a benthic community. Ecological Monographs 70:237-263
  • Fredette TJ and RJ Diaz. 1986. Life history of Gammarus mucronatus Say (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in warm eemperate estuarine habitats, York River, Virginia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 6:57-78.
  • Fredette TJ and RJ Diaz. 1986. Secondary production of Gammarus mucronatus Say (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in warm temperate estuarine habitats, York River, Virginia. Journal of Crustacean Biology, Vol. 6, No. 4, (Nov., 1986), pp. 729-741
  • Hauxwell J, McClelland J, Behr PJ, and I Valiela. 1998. Relative importance of grazing and nutrient controls of macroalgal biomass in three temperate shallow estuaries. Estuaries 21:347-360.
  • Llanso RJ, Bell SS, and FE Vose. 1998. Food habits of red drum and spotted seatrout in a restored mangrove impoundment. Estuaries 21:294-306.
  • Lowry, J. (2014). Gammarus mucronatus Say, 1818. In: Horton, T.; Lowry, J. & De Broyer, C. (2013 onwards) World Amphipoda Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Masterson JW. 1997. Investigation of the effects of macrophyte structure, food resources and health on habitat selection and refuge value in vegetated aquatic habitats. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. 145 p.
  • Nelson WG. 1979. Experimental studies of selective predation on amphipods: Consequences for amphipod distribution and abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 38:225-245.
  • Nelson WG. 1980. The biology of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) amphipods. Crustaceana 39:59-89.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Ryer CH and RJ Orth. 1987. Feeding Ecology of the Northern Pipefish, Syngnathus fuscus, in a Seagrass Community of the Lower Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 10:330-336.
  • Sagasti A, Schaffner LC, and JE Duffy. 2000. Epifaunal communities thrive in an estuary with hypoxic episodes. Estuaries 23, No. 4:474-487.
  • Steele DH and VJ Steele. 1975. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. XI. Comparison and discussion. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1116-1126.
  • Stoner AW 1980. The role of seagrass biomass in the organization of benthic macrofaunal assemblages. Bulletin of Marine Science 30:537-551.
  • Waters TF and JC Hokenstrom. 1980. Annual production and drift of the stream amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus in Valley Creek, Minnesota.-Limnology and Oceanography 25:700-710.
  • Watling L, and D Maurer. 1972. Marine shallow water amphipods of the Delaware Bay area, USA. Crustaceana, Suppl. 3:251-266.
  • Young DK, Buzas MA, and MW Young. 1976. Species densities of macrobenthos associated with seagrass: A field experimental study of predation. Journal of Marine Research 34:577-592.
  • Zimmerman R, Gibson R, and J Harrington. 1979. Herbivory detritivory among gammaridean amphipods from a Florida seagrass community. Marine Biology 54:41-47.
  • van Maren MJ. 1978. Distribution and ecology of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 and some other amphipod Crustacea near Beaufort (North Carolina, USA). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 48:46-56.


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