The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) occues in the Western Atlantic from Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), including the entire Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. It has been reported twice from West Africa (Ivory Coast). (Holthuis 1991)
Distribution and ecology
Maximum body length of the Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) is about 45 cm, with an average length of about 20 cm (Holthuis 1991).
The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) has an antennular plate with 4 large spines arranged in a square; there are no scattered small spinules. The third maxilliped has an exopod with a flagellum. The transverse grooves of the abdominal somites have margins that are straight, not crenulated, where interrupted, they gradually narrow toward the middle of the body, rather than end abruptly. The color of the abdominal somites is reddish, brownish, or sometimes greenish, without transverse colour bands. A large eyespot of whitish or yellowish, surrounded by a dark colour, is present over the anterior end of the base of the pleura of abdominal somite 2; a similar (even slightly larger) spot is present on the anterolateral parts of somite 6. The tail fan has a broad transverse reddish band along or just before the posterior margin. (Holthuis 1991)
Habitat and Ecology
In Florida, they typically moult 2 - 3 times a year from March to July, and December to February (Williams 1984). The timing of moulting is affected by water temperature/ geographic region (M.J. Butler, A.C. Cockcroft, A.B. MacDiarmid and R.A.Wahle pers. comm. 2008).
Egg production in females has been shown to be greatly reduced in fished populations, compared to unexploited populations, with females in the exploited population producing only 12% of eggs (Lyons et al. 1981). Age at maturity is estimated at 2 years, and longevity at 12 years (Chávez 2001) although individuals of 20 years have been noted (Ehrhardt 2005). Furthermore, size at maturity differs with locality. Estimates for size at 50% maturity range from 81 mm (CL) in Cuba, to 92 mm (CL) in Colombia (FAO 2001).
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.
Depth range (m): 1 - 393
Temperature range (°C): 23.535 - 27.084
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.159 - 1.157
Salinity (PPS): 35.580 - 36.315
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 4.845
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.193
Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 1.769
Depth range (m): 1 - 393
Temperature range (°C): 23.535 - 27.084
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.159 - 1.157
Salinity (PPS): 35.580 - 36.315
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.519 - 4.845
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.193
Silicate (umol/l): 0.868 - 1.769
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) inhabits shallow waters, occasionally down to 90 meters and possibly even deeper. It is found among rocks, on reefs, in eelgrass beds, and in other habitats habitat that provide protection. (Holthuis 1991)
Life History and Behavior
The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) is gregarious and migratory. Females move to deeper water for spawning and there are mass migrations in the autumn when the animals, in single files of up to 50 individuals, move together in a certain direction during the day, each animal having body contact with the next via their antennae. (Holthuis 1991)
In the northern part of its range, larvae of the Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) are found mainly from June to December (Holthuis 1991).
Evolution and Systematics
Antennules of the spiny lobster trap water to identify odors using chemosensory hairs.
"…lobster olfactory antennules hydrodynamically alter the spatiotemporal patterns of concentration in turbulent odor plumes. As antennules flick, water penetrates their chemosensory hair array during the fast downstroke, carrying fine-scale patterns of concentration into the receptor area. This spatial pattern, blurred by flow along the antennule during the downstroke, is retained during the slower return stroke and is not shed until the next flick." (Koehl et al. 2001:1948)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Panulirus argus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Panulirus argus
Public Records: 329
Specimens with Barcodes: 359
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Four stocks have been identified by the FAO (2001) according to the nature of the coastal shelf and prevailing currents which thereby affect recruitment. These stocks detail the major lobster producing countries, although there are many other countries that also utilize this resource:
Southern Stock: Brazil, Venezuela, Dominican Republic and Lesser Antilles.
South Central Stock: Colombia, Nicaragua, Honduras and Jamaica.
North Central Stock: Mexico, Belize and southern Cuba.
Northern Stock: North Cuba, USA (Florida), Bahamas, Turks and Caicos and Bermuda.
Landings of this species over the last 50-60 years, have fluctuated significantly, peaking at 37,500 tonnes in 1995/1996. Both the Northern and Southern stocks have shown an increase in landings, while the South Central stock appears to have stabilized, and the North central stock has shown a decline (FAO 2006). The biggest producing countries include Cuba, the Bahamas, Brazil, Nicaragua and the USA, which in 1998 accounted for over 88% of the global landings. This species is harvested using a number of gear types including traps, gill nets, by hand (divers), and aggregating devices known as 'pesqueros' or 'casitas' (FAO 2006).
Bahamas: Stock biomass abundance (as estimated from length cohort analysis) is reported to be showing a declining trend of 33% between 1992 and 2001 when it peaked at 24 million pounds and declined to 16 million pounds. There has also been a decline in the average size of lobsters since 1991/1992 when average tail weight peaked at 7.95 oz and declined to ~7.45 in 2001/2002 (Gittens and Braynen 2002).
Bermuda: Between the 1950s and early 1970s catches of this species fluctuated between 150 and 200 tonnes with a peak in 1968 at 250 tonnes. As of the 1970s there was a decline in catch to between 10 and 40 tonnes per annum. This decline in landings is likely a result of a conservation program started in 1975 which prohibited the removal of individuals less than 92 mm (CL); a closed fishing season between 1st April and 31st August over the breeding season; prohibition of the removal of berried females; protection of juveniles in nursery areas around the North Shore and inshore waters of the sounds and harbours (Evans and Evans 1995). Catch per unit effort (CPUE) is seen as an appropriate index of abundance when studying the Bermuda population, as annual sea temperatures fluctuate very little in this region and thereby have little effect on the catchability coefficient. During the period 1975-1986 there was an overall increase in CPUE from just 0.4 lobsters trap/ haul to above 0.6 lobsters trap/ haul (Evans and Evans 1995). During the period 1996-2001 CPUE was reported as relatively stable for the offshore fishery while the inshore fishery has shown a declining trend. In 2001/2002 fishing effort was reduced; total landings were still down in this season but CPUE was significantly higher (2.29 in 2001/2002 compared to 1.70 in 2000/2001) (Trott, Luckhurst and Medley 2002).
Belize: There has been a significant decline in the CPUE in the spiny lobster fishery in this region from ~1.2 kg/trap in 1965 to 0.6 kg/trap in 1997. There are also reports that 10% of the landings consist of undersized individuals (Carcamo 2003).
Brazil: Since 1959, there has been a significant increase in the landings of this species from 1,000 tonnes to over 10,000 tonnes in the early 1990's. There has since been a subsequent decline to annual landings ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 tonnes (FISHSTAT Plus 2000). During the period 1974 to 1993 CPUE declined from ~0.30 to ~0.15 (FAO 2001), a decline of ~50%. Abundance estimates (estimated by tuned length cohort analysis) show a significant decline since 1993 from ~25 to 30 million down to around 15 million in 1997. During this period there was a number of new fishing vessels entering the fleet, as well as an increase in the use of gillnets, traps, scuba divers and free divers. However the stock abundance of this fishery is largely driven by variable levels of recruitment which are brought about by environmental changes such as ENSO events. This in combination with a growing intensity in the fishing fleet could result in ongoing declines in abundance (FAO 2001).
Cuba: There are four lobster management zones in Cuba: North Western which accounts for approximately 2% of the landings; North Eastern which accounts for approximately 15% of the landings; Gulf of Batabano which accounts for approximately 60% of the landings; South Eastern which accounts for approximately 23% of the landings (Cruz and Adriano 2001). In 1953, landings of this species increased from approximately 1,000 tonnes per year to a peak of 13,578 tonnes in 1985. There has since been a subsequent decline to 4,401 tonnes in 2006. This species is of huge economic importance to Cuba and represents approximately 60% of the country's gross income from fisheries (Baisre and Cruz 1994). The particularly high landings from 1978 to 1988 was largely due to an increase in fishing effort. Cruz and Phillips (1994) found the number of pesqueros deployed on the fishery rose from 440,000 in 1975 to 856,000 in 1983 and 1,230,600 in 1987, as well as strict compliance with minimum legal size limits, and the closed fishing season (Puga et al. 1992). The decline in catch as of 1988 may be in part due to hurricane Gilbert which is thought to have affected lobster nursery grounds (Cruz Font 2002). Ninety percent of the lobster catch is comprised of lobsters aged 2 to 6 with 55% aged 3 to 4 (Cruz Font 2002). In the report by Cruz Font (2002) their calculations indicate that an increase in current fishing effort could result in higher catch as actual fishing mortality is lower than maximum yield, however this does not take account of the resulting effect on spawning stock biomass. The authors recommend that instead of defining a biological reference point (BRP) based on yield per recruit such as Fmax and F0.1 , they recommend adopting a view which focuses on spawning stock or egg production in order to preserve reproductive potential (calculated as reference fishing mortality Fx% representing a spawning stock biomass per recruit that is x% of that with no fishing). A BRP of 35-50%, based on spawning biomass, is recommended.
Jamaica: There has been an ongoing increase in the landings of this species since the early 1980's. Landings then peaked at ~700 tonnes in 2005. During this time intensity of the fishing fleet has increased significantly, however CPUE data is not available due to lack of cooperation from fishers (Kelly 2002).
Nicaragua: Over the history of this fishery, effort has increased linearly. Rates of fishing mortality (F) have reached levels of 0.53 per year while natural mortality is calculated at 0.35 per year. Regulations include annual fishing quotas which are defined by changes in annual recruitment; prohibition of fishing during periods of maximum recruitment and egg-laying (May-June); prohibition on removal of berried females. However at present there is no effective means to monitor or control these regulations. There has also been a decline in the mean length of individuals being harvested from 163 mm in 1990/1991 to 159 mm in 2002/2003 indicating growth-overfishing. Biomass estimates were obtained by means of length cohort analysis and indicate considerable fluctuations over the period 1990 - 2002. In the season 1998/1999 abundance fell to below 3,636 tonnes, while in season 1999/2000 it exceeded 5,454 tonnes but subsequently declined to below 3,636 tonnes in 2001/2002. The decline in 1998/1999 could be related to the effect of hurricane Mitch on nursery grounds and thereby affecting recruitment (Navarro 2002).
Puerto Rico: Over the period 1988-2001, landings of this species rose from ~150,000 pounds to 250,000-300,000 pounds per year (Matos-Caraballo et al. 2007). During this time CPUE for each gear type has also shown an increase. Average size of individuals has increased from the period 1988-1994 to 1995-2001 perhaps as a result of good enforcement of the minimum size limit (Matos-Caraballo et al. 2007).
Florida, United States of America-Since the 1970s the landings of this species have been fairly stable with some fluctuation occurring. Prior to this CPUE peaked at over 100 lbs/trap and then declined to ~10 lbs/trip in 1975. Since the fishing season of 1990/1991 the catch rate per trip has been steadily increasing from ~0.75 pounds/trip to ~1.12 pounds/trip in 1999/2000. Spawning stock biomass of females has also increased during the period 1993/1994 - 1999/2000 from ~2.5 million pounds to ~3 million pounds, while male biomass has shown some variability between ~1.8 and ~2.3 million pounds (Muller et al. 2000). Recruitment levels appear to be higher following the Trap Reduction Program which was implemented in 1992/1993, with numbers of age 2 lobsters rising from an average of 9.1 million lobsters, to 12.6 million lobsters (Muller et al. 2000). In 2000, Matthews considered the fishery to be in a stable state.
Venezuela: During the period 1950-1977, the landings of this species fluctuated between 100-200 tonnes per annum. Between 1977 and 1993 the landings then showed more dramatic fluctuations between 250 and 1200 tonnes per annum. This was followed by a subsequent decline to approximately 100 tonnes from 1998-2001 but has since shown an increase to approximately 1,100 tonnes. There is no formal data on fishing effort in Venezuela although sporadic reports have been made by Parque Nacional Archipiélago los Roques (PNALR). From 1994 to 1997, free divers CPUE is said to have decreased significantly (5,157 kg per diver per season to 2,966 kg per diver per season), while trap catches are thought to have increased during this same period from 80.2 kg per trap per season, to 93.2 kg per trap per season in 1996, and 90.8 kg per trap per season in 1997 (FAO 2001). At present ~95% of the landings of this species are derived from Los Roques Archipelago National Park (Yallonardo et al. 2001). Size frequency of lobsters taken during the period 1986-1988 and 1998-1999 did not differ significantly indicating that growth overfishing does not appear to be a problem. Mean CPUE by trapping increased from 2.29 kg/trap/month in 1986-1988, to 2.31 kg/trap/month in 1998-1999, and CPUE by diving increased from 133 kg/diver/month in 1986-1988, to 155.65 kg/diver/month in 1998-1999 (Yallonardo et al. 2001). While a decline in the landings was noted in the trap fishery (158,363 kg to 93,555 kg) this is likely related to a decline in the number of traps being used over this time period (275 traps to 225 traps) (Yallonardo et al. 2001). While the conclusion of this study implicates stability in the fishery, the authors note that only a single data point was used for the period 1986-1988.
There are regulations in place governing the harvesting of this species within part of its range. There is a legal minimum size of 69 mm (carapace length) and a closed season of 120 days from February to May, in order to safeguard reproducing females during the spawning period, to protect new recruits, and to allow the growth and increase in weight of the population (Phillips and Melville-Smith 2006). Furthermore, strict control is also exercised over the prohibition of the taking of berried females, as well as the number of fishing gears and boats utilized, and boat replacement (Baisre and Cruz 1994).
Further research is needed to determine an appropriate index of abundance for the global population of this species, and to what extent it is impacted upon by threats within its range.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) is the most important commercial palinurid in American waters. It is fished practically throughout its range. The catches of this species reported in the FAO Yearbook of Fisheries Statistics amounted to 32,854 metric tons in 1987 and 33,903 metric tons in 1988, with most of the catch taken by Cuba, Brazil, Bahamas, the U.S.A, and Honduras. The species is mostly caught with traps, but is also taken by hand, speared, and trawled. It is marketed fresh; the tails are exported frozen or canned. (Holthuis 1991)
P. argus have long, cylindrical bodies covered with spines. Two large spines form forward-pointing "horns" above the eyestalks. They are generally olive greenish or brown, but can be tan to mahogany. There is a scattering of yellowish to cream-colored spots on the carapace and larger (usually four to six) yellow to cream-colored spots on the abdomen. They have no claws (pincers). The first pair of antennae are slender, black or dark brown and biramous. The second pair of antennae are longer than the body, and covered with forward pointing spines. The bases of the second antennae are thick, can have a bluish tinge, and are likewise covered with rows of spines. The legs are usually striped longitudinally with blue and yellow and terminate in a single spine-like point. The somites of the abdomen are smooth and have a shallow furrow across the middle. Each has pairs of swimmerets on the underside that are yellow and black. The lobes of the tail are colored similarly to the swimmerets.
P. argus may reach up to 60 cm (24 in) long, but typically around 20 cm (7.9 in), and is fished throughout its range. Sexual maturity in females is reached at a carapace length of 54–80 mm (2.1–3.1 in).
Like most decapods, P. argus hatches from eggs carried externally by the female for around four weeks. They begin life as a free-swimming, microscopic phyllosoma larvae. After about one year,the larvae settle in algae (Laurencia sp., Neogoniolithon sp.), in Thalassia testudinum seagrass beds or among mangrove roots. After undergoing several molts, they migrate to the coral reefs and live in holes or crevices. As they grow, they molt or shed their exoskeleton to make room for their larger bodies. As in other decapods, after molting, the new exoskleton or shell is soft, and has to harden. During this time, the lobster is highly vulnerable to predation and as a result they are usually very retiring until the new exoskleton hardens fully. The diet is mostly composed of mollusks, but they also consume detritus, vegetable material, and dead animals and fish they find on the bottom.
P. argus is a nocturnal species, taking to cover during the day. They serve as prey for skates, nurse sharks, octopuses, snappers and groupers. Although they generally prefer to remain near cover, at times groups of hundreds will line up and march across the floor off Florida and the Bahamas. The purpose of these migrations is not known, but they generally occur in the fall and may be in response to the onset of autumn storms.
Individuals can be found at depths of up to 100 m (330 ft) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Beaufort, North Carolina, including the Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas and Bermuda, with occasional reports from West Africa. Although they range throughout the entire Gulf of Mexico, in the northern portions of the Gulf they generally are only found at depths of 33 m (108 ft) and greater due to the seasonal variation in the water temperature. Around the southern portion of the Florida peninsula and throughout the Bahamas and Caribbean, they are found in shallower water. They generally prefer habitat with some sort of cover and can be found around coral reefs, artificial reefs, sponges, bridge pilings, wooden bridge bumpers, piers, and under the prop roots of mangroves.
P. argus is a popular seafood item for human consumption. It is the most important food export of the Bahamas, and rivals the shrimp industry in the Florida Keys in commercial value. They are eagerly sought by both commercial lobstermen and sport divers in South Florida, the Caribbean, the Bahamas, and Bermuda.
In Florida, there is a season where the spiny lobster may be taken, usually from the beginning of August to the end of March, to protect the species during its main breeding season. A special "mini season" a few days before the start of the regular lobster season gives recreational divers a "head start" in catching them. Divers catch them by gloved hand, often "tickling" them out of their dens with a dowel or small stick. In the Bahamas and Caribbean, they are often also speared or gigged (Florida game regulations prohibit taking them by these methods). In Bermuda, licensed individuals can only take lobsters by free-diving and using an approved noose within designated areas; all other methods and use of air tanks are prohibited. Commercial fisherman typically use lobster traps similar to those used by lobster fishermen in New England. The traps are usually baited with dead fish or chicken necks.
Lobsters can be cooked in many ways, a popular method in the Caribbean is to grill the lobster after splitting and seasoning.
Other common names for the species in the United States include spiny lobster, Bermuda spiny lobster, common spiny lobster, crawfish, Florida spiny lobster, West Indian langouste and West Indian spiny lobster.
|External identifiers for Panulirus argus|
|Encyclopedia of Life||344167|
|Also found in: Wikispecies|
- M. Butler, A. Cockcroft, A. MacDiarmid & R. Wahle (2011). "Panulirus argus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Lipke B. Holthuis (1991). "Panulirus argus". FAO Species Catalogue, Volume 13. Marine Lobsters of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 133–134. ISBN 92-5-103027-8.
- J. L. Munro (1983). "The biology, ecology and bionomics of spiny lobsters (Palinuridae), apider crabs (Majidae) and other crustacean resources". In J. L. Munro. Caribbean Coral Reef Fishery Resources. ICLARM Technical Reports 7 (2nd ed.). The WorldFish Center. pp. 206–222. ISBN 978-971-10-2201-3.
- Bos AR, S Clark and S Gore (2003). "Preliminary observations on habitat use of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in South Caicos, Turks & Caicos Islands". Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. pp. 230–240.
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