Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread in North America occurring in the Atlantic watershed in Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode Island, Virginia, Vermont and West Virginia (Fetzner 2008, Hobbs 1974, Jezerinac et al. 1995, Souty-Grosset et al. 2006). This species was introduced to Europe in the 1890s where it is now widespread (Jezerinac et al. 1995, Souty-Grosset et al. 2006). This species was originally introduced into Europe to replace diminished populations of the Signal crayfish, but due to its small size that replacement failed (Black and Holdich 2007).

The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of this species has been estimated to exceed 2 million km2.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

endemic to a single nation

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Ranges along the Atlantic watersheds from Maine to Virginia. Although introduced to New Brunswick and parts of Quebec, some occurrences in Quebec are likely the result of an extension of its natural range along the Champlain and Memphremagog Lakes (Dube and Desroches, 2007). It as been introduced into western Europe (Hobbs 1989). Although first introduced into Europe in 1890 (Germany), secondary introductions have occurred throughout continental Europe in over 20 countries (not yet in the Iberian Peninsula) making it one of the most common crayfish there (Petrusek et al., 2006; Parvulescu et al., 2009; Holdich and Black, 2007; Baitchorov and Giginiak, 2009; Puky, 2009).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits clear streams that are 10 - 100 m wide, with silt, cobble, gravel and sand substrates (Jezerinac 1995, Aiken 1965). This species has also been found in lakes (Aiken 1965). Individuals are often found in shallow depressions in pools and have rarely been captured where silt is absent from the substrate (Jezerinac 1995).

Systems
  • Freshwater
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Prefers shallow bay areas of larger lakes (Hogger, 1988). It also inhabits clear streams that are 10100 m wide, with silt, cobble, gravel and sand substrates (Jezerinac 1995; Aiken 1965). This species has also been found in lakes (Aiken 1965). Individuals are often found in shallow depressions in pools and have rarely been captured where silt is absent from the substrate (Jezerinac 1995).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: In New Jersey, Francois (1959) cites it for Bergen, Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, hunterdon, Mercer, Monmouth, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, Sommerset, and Warren Cos.; as well as Philadelphia and Bucks Cos., Pennsylvania. Horowitz and Flinders (2004) found it to be uncommon (2 of 15 stations) in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley and Highlands regions of New Jersey. It was recently documented in the vicinity of Plummers Island (bank of Potomac River), Montgomery Co., Maryland (Norden, 2008). In Maryland, it was historically the most abundant species but is currently present, but uncommon, in the Appalachian Plateau in tributaries to the North Branch Potomac River (possibly via dispersal through the low-gradient Chesapeake and Ohio Canal) and so is now uncommon west of the Piedmont, somewhat common but declining within the Piedmont (except where non-native crayfish species are absent), and common in the Coastal Plain (Killian et al., 2010). In New York's Hudson River drainage, Smith (1979) added Rennselaer Co. In southern New England, Smith (1981) documented it in the Pawcatuck (CT/RI), Thames (CT), Connecticut (MA/CT), and Housatonic (CT) River systems. Although there is question as to whether New England occurrences are native, Faxon (1914) cites occurrences in Massachusetts. Smith (2000) notes that in southern New England, native populations (if, indeed native) are confined to major south flowing river systems including the Housatonic River, Connecticut River (where it is common), and Thames River drainages; with less frequently encountered populations east of these drainages (probably introduced) and scattered populations known from the Merrimack River, Charles River, Narragansett Bay, Mount Hope Bay, and other coastal drainages (not the Hudson River drainage). Although introduced to New Brunswick and parts of Quebec, some occurrences in Quebec are likely the result of an extension of its natural range along the Champlain and Memphremagog Lakes (Dube and Desroches, 2007).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: This species is known to be abundant in sites of suitable habitat.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Orconectes limosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Orconectes limosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GAT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTACCTGCGTTTGGAATAGTCTCTCATATTGTAGTTCAAGAGTCTGGTAAAAAA---GAGGCTTTTGGTACATTAGGGATAATTTATGCAATAATTGCTATTGGTATTTTGGGGTTTGTTGTTTGGGCTCATCATATATTTACAGTAGGGATAGATGTGGATACTCGGGCTTATTTTACTTCTGCTACAATGATTATTGCAGTACCTACTGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGTTGATTGGGA---ACTTTACAAGGAACT---CAAGTAAACTATAGTCCTTCTTTATTGTGAGTACTAGGTTTTATTTTTTTATTTACAGTGGGGGGCCTAACAGGGGTAGTATTGGCTAATTCTTCTATTGATATTATTTTACATGACACTTATTATGTAGTAGCTCATTTCCATTATGTG---TTATCTATAGGAGCTGTGTTTGGAATTTTTGCTGGGATTGTTCATTGATTCTCTTTATTTACAGGCTTATCATTAAATCAGAAGTGGTTAAAAATTCAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Adams, S., Schuster, G.A. & Taylor, C.A.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B. & Richman, N.

Contributor/s
Livingston, F., Livingston, F., Soulsby, A.-M., Batchelor, A., Dyer, E., Whitton, F., Milligan, H.T., Smith, J., Lutz, M.L., De Silva, R., McGuinness, S., Kasthala, G., Jopling, B., Sullivan, K. & Cryer, G.

Justification
This species has been assessed as Least Concern (LC). This is an invasive crayfish species with a very large distribution within its native North American range and within its non-native European range. It is a habitat generalist and there are no known major threats to this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species is widespread and common along North American Atlantic drainages but has been introduced widely to the rest of North America and across western Europe.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. However, it is known to be abundant in sites of suitable habitat (S. Adams, G. Schuster, C. Taylor, pers. comm. 2009).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Short Term Trend: Increase of 10 to >25%

Comments: Although first introduced into Europe in 1890 (Germany), secondary introductions have occurred throughout continental Europe in over 20 countries (not yet in the Iberian Peninsula) making it one of the most common crayfish there (Parvulescu et al., 2009; Holdich and Black, 2007; Baitchorov and Giginiak, 2009; Puky, 2009). It is declining in Maryland within and west of the Piedmont at the expense of increased range expansion of Orconectes virilis (Kilian et al., 2010) and similar trends have been observed in southeastern Pennsylvania (Bouchard et al., 2007) and West Virginia (Jezerinac et al., 1995) where it is now believed extirpated (Swecker et al., 2010).

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of >25%

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats to this species. Hybridization is known to have occurred between this species and Orconectes rusticus at a single locality in Massachusetts. However, this is not having a major impact on the global population of this species (S. Adams, G. Schuster, C. Taylor, pers. comm. 2009).

It is likely that this species is experiencing localized declines due to urbanization, alterations to the hydrological regime and water pollution (S. Adams, G. Schuster, C. Taylor, pers. comm. 2009), but these are very unlikely to be threatening the species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: There are no known major threats to this species. Hybridization is known to have occurred between Orconectes limosus and Orconectes rusticus at a single locality in Massachusetts. The cause of this hybridization are not known, however, transplanting of species to new habitats or the inability to find conspecific mates due to habitat alteration are both possible (Smith, 1981). It is declining in Maryland within and west of the Piedmont at the expense of increased range expansion of Orconectes virilis (Kilian et al., 2010) and similar trends have been observed in southeastern Pennsylvania (Bouchard et al., 2007) and West Virginia (Jezerinac et al., 1995) where it is now believed extirpated (Swecker et al., 2010). However, this is not having a major impact on the global population of this species.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has been given the heritage rank of G5 by NatureServe (Taylor et al. 2007, NatureServe 2009) and Currently Stable by the American Fisheries Society (Taylor et al. 2007), meaning the species is apparently secure, widespread and abundant.
This species is a carrier of the crayfish plague and poses a great threat to native crayfish species in Europe (Holdich and Black 2007).
Further research is required on the population abundance of this species and its life history.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Orconectes limosus

Orconectes limosus is a species of crayfish in the family Cambaridae. It is native to the east coast of North America, from Maine to the lower James River, Virginia, but has also been introduced to Europe.[2] It is unusual in that it lives in silty streams, rather than the clear water usually preferred by crayfish.[3] Like Pacifastacus leniusculus, another invasive North American crayfish, O. limosus carries crayfish plague and is a threat to native crayfish.[4]

O. limosus was introduced to Germany in 1890, and has since spread across much of Northern Europe, recently reaching the United Kingdom.[4] It has also spread southwards as far as the Danube in Serbia.[5]

Orconectes limosus can reproduce sexually or by parthenogenesis.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S. Adams, G. A. Schuster & C. A. Taylor (2010). "Orconectes limosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 8, 2010. 
  2. ^ James W. Fetzner, Jr. (December 6, 2006). "Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus (Rafinesque, 1817)". Crayfish Taxon Browser. Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 
  3. ^ Whitney Stocker. "Orconectes (Faxonus) limosus (Rafinesque, 1817)". Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b David Holdich & John Black (2007). "The spiny-cheek crayfish, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque, 1817) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae), digs into the UK". Aquatic Invasions 2 (1): 1–16. doi:10.3391/ai.2007.2.1.1. 
  5. ^ S. Pavlović, S. Milošević, S. Borković, V. Simić, M. Paunović, R. Žikić & Z. Saičić (2006). "A report of Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus (Rafinesque, 1817) (Crustacea: Deacpoda: Astacidea: Cambaridae: Orconectes: subgenus Faxonius) in the Serbian part of the River Danube". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 20 (1): 53–56. 
  6. ^ M Buřič, M Hulák, A Kouba, A Petrusek, P Kozák (2011). "successful crayfish invader is capable of facultative parthenogenesis: a novel reproductive mode in decapod crustaceans". PLoS ONE 6 (5): e20281. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020281. PMC 3105005. PMID 21655282. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!