Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Only ever known from Dianchi Lake itself and Songhuaba Reservior, Yunnan Province, China.
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Asia: restricted to southwest China.
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China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Analsoft rays: 11 - 15
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Diagnostic Description

Body color silvery white on sides of body but slightly darker on back and pale bellow. Back behind head slightly convex and then gradually straight rearward; length of head slightly longer than deep of body; snout pointed; lower jaw slightly projected (Ref. 45563).
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Ecology

Habitat

Yangtze River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Yangtze River system. Benthopelagic fish inhabit the water column niche immediately above the bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.

The upper Yangtze basin consists chiefly of Paleozoic limestone and terrigenous sedimentary rock, with some granitic material. The most downstream element of the upper Yangtze basin is often termed the Sichuan Basin; here the Yangtze cuts through Triassic and Permian material before entering the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges area is a stretch of the Yangtze that runs approximately 660 kilometers, terminating at the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Prior to construction of the dam, the Three Gorges area was a site of exceptional natural beauty; after dam construction the gorge areas were filled with approximately 100 meters in depth of Yangtze water, and considerable amounts of the watershed were graded.

The lower Yangtze basin consists of anabranching river structures and Pleistocene coastal terraces. Prior to development of the Three Gorges Dam, the Yangtze Delta was replenished with a copious sediment load reaching the river mouth; however, the dam has now severely limited the natural flow and deposition of sediment to the delta region. Consequently, the integrity of the delta is been compromised, with scouring exceeding deposition, and the very stability of the delta is endangered.

Lower and middle basins of the Yangtze carry heavy pollutant loads. In the lower Yangtze basin nitrate levels are high, measuring at about 1000 tons per day at Datong; these levels accrue from high applications of chemical fertilizer applied and also considerable loadings of untreated sewage due to the large human population of the basin, with correspondingly little infrastructure for sewage treatment.

Heavy metal concentrations are also high in the lower Yangtze, with measurements of dissolved lead at 0.078 microgram/liter; cadmium (0.024 microgram/liter), chromium (0.57 microgram/liter), copper (1.9 microgram/liter), and nickel (0.50 microgram/liter). Levels of dissolved arsenic have been measured at 3.3 microgram/liter) and zinc at 1.5 microgram/liter), both notably higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5 respectively than other typical large world rivers. In Yangtze River suspended sediment, arsenic comprises 31 microgram/gram, lead comprises 83 microgram/gram, and nickel comprises 52 micrograms/gram of sediment content

A number of other benthopelagic associates are found in the Yangtze, including: Anabarilius polylepis, Bangana rendahli, Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus, Sinocyclocheilus grahami and Siniperca roulei. The demersal fish Silurus meridionalis also is found as a Yangtze River endemic species.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in the middle and upper layers of waters and feeds mainly on aquatic insects, plankton and fragments of plants. It becomes sexually mature after one winter and lays sticky eggs. The average standard length is 126.4 mm for one year’s individual, 172.8 mm for two years; 210.8 mm for three years; 251.2 mm for four years; 284.2 mm for five years and 311,9 mm for six years (Chu and Chen 1989).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Trophic Strategy

Lives in the middle and upper layers of waters. Feeds mainly on aquatic insects, plankton and plants fragments (Ref. 45563).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Chen, X.-Y. & Du, L.-N.

Reviewer/s
Kullander, F. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority) & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Unit)

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is endemic to Dianchi lake (surface area 292.6 km²) and Songhuaba reservoir (3.63 km²), Yunnan Province, China. Before the 1960s, Anabarilius alburnops was one of the main commercial fishes in Lake Dianchi, accounting for about 30% of the total fish harvest of the lake, by the 1980s this had decreased to about 1%. Since then the population has been decreasing year after year until now the fish is only occasionally seen during the fishing season (Yue 1998). Several introduced species also compete with it, such as Cultrichthys erythropterus and Hemiculter leucisculus. It is now only occasionally seen in Dianchi lake and Songhuaba reservoir. The species is assessed as Endangered based on its restricted range (extent of occurrence estimated at less than 5,000 km² and area of occupancy estimated at less than 500 km²), declining habitat quality (through increased pollution in the lake), and declining population size.
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Population

Population
Known from Dianchi Lake and Songhuaba reservoir. Only a few individuals are occasionally caught during the fishing season and population size is unknown.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Its decline in the lake is likely due to introduced fish species, decreasing water quality, the loss of macrophytes (in part due to grass carp), over-fishing and the loss of breeding sites lost due to siltation and blocked access.
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Endangered (EN) (B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v))
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The fish was listed as a second-class protected animal by the Government of Yunnan Province in 1989 and the Regulations on Fishing In Dianchi Lake was issued for the producing areas. The lake is closed for fishing for five months every year and seven no-fishing protected bay areas were set up, providing feeding grounds for a part of the fish population of the lake.
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Wikipedia

Anabarilius alburnops

Anabarilius alburnops (also known as silver minnow[2] or silvery white fish,[1][3] a direct translation of its Chinese name, 银白鱼) is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Alburnus. It is only known from Dian Lake and Songhuaba Reservoir, both in Kunming, Yunnan.[1][3] It can reach sizes above 31 cm (12 in) SL.[1]

The species was once common in Dian Lake, but has since 1950's dramatically declined; today, only few individuals are occasionally captured. Its decline is caused by introduced fish species, pollution, the loss of macrophytes (in part due to grass carp), over-fishing, and the loss of breeding sites. Along with many other fish species endemic to Dian Lake, it is a threatened species.[1][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Chen, X.-Y. & Du, L.-N. (2008). "Anabarilius alburnops". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Anabarilius alburnops" in FishBase. April 2006 version.
  3. ^ a b c Du, L. N.; Chen, X. Y.; Yang, J. X. (2008). "Threatened fishes of the world: Anabarilius alburnops (Regan, 1914), a member of the family Cyprinidae (Pisces: Teleostei)". Environmental Biology of Fishes 83 (4): 505. doi:10.1007/s10641-008-9373-3.  edit


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