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BiologyNon-anadromous, entering limans and lower parts of river deltas, but only occasionally in freshwater. A cold-loving species, tolerating 3 or 4°C.(Ref. 188). At sea, pelagic in deep water and enters brackish lagoons to spawn. Spawns first at 2 years and many individuals spawn 2-4 seasons. Eggs sink to bottom. Spent individuals return to the sea to feed. In autumn, migrates to southern Black Sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to the sea or estuaries during the first summer (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on small fishes (mainly sprats and anchovies) also on shrimps, gammarids and other large crustaceans (Ref. 188). It is still more or less abundant in lower reaches of rivers and coastal lagoons, In northern Black Sea, the decline in habitat quality in suitable estuarine ecosystems is expected to have an impact in the immediate future (Ref. 59043).