Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Usually found on or near bottom in kelp beds or rocky areas (Ref. 2850). Viviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36715).
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Distribution

Eastern Pacific: Timber Cove, Sonoma County in central California, USA to central Baja California, Mexico.
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Eastern North Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 15; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 6 - 7; Vertebrae: 26
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Size

Maximum size: 420 mm TL
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Max. size

42.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 39277)
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Diagnostic Description

Branchiostegal rays: 7 (Ref. 36715).
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Type Information

Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 25054
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Santa Catalina Island Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 24972
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Santa Catalina Island Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 26903
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: California, Santa Barbara., California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 26870
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: California, Santa Barbara., California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 27096
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: San Francisco, Cal., San Francisco County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 27032
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Monterey, Cal., Monterey County, California, United States, North America, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Syntype for Sebastichthys atrovirens Jordan & Gilbert
Catalog Number: USNM 24994
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): D. Jordan
Year Collected: 1880
Locality: Wilmington, Los Angeles County, California, United States, Pacific
  • Syntype: Jordan, D. S. & Gilbert, C. H. 1880. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 3 (150): 289.
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

demersal; marine; depth range ? - 46 m (Ref. 2850), usually 9 - 12 m (Ref. 2850)
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Depth: 0 - 46m.
Recorded at 46 meters.

Habitat: demersal.
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Trophic Strategy

Stomachs were more likely to be empty during the day than at night, suggesting that it is a nocturnal feeder in southern California (Ref. 28090).
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Viviparous (Ref. 36715, 34817).
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 20 years (wild)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sebastes atrovirens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 33
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Sebastes atrovirens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TGAGCCGGTATAGTAGGCACAGCCCTCAGCCTACTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCGGGCGCTCTCCTTGGAGACGACCAAATTTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCACATGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGTTTTGGAAACTGATTAATTCCCCTAATGATTGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCATTTCCTCGTATAAATAACATAAGTTTCTGACTTCTGCCCCCTTCCTTCCTACTACTACTCGCCTCTTCTGGAGTAGAAGCGGGTGCCGGAACCGGGTGAACAGTGTACCCGCCCCTGGCCGGTAATTTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTCGACCTGACAATCTTTTCACTTCACCTAGCAGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAATTTTATCACCACAATTATTAACATGAAGCCCCCCGCCATCTCTCAGTACCAAACACCCCTATTTGTGTGAGCTGTACTAATTACCGCTGTTCTTCTCCTTCTCTCCCTGCCAGTTCTCGCTGCCGGCATCACAATGCTCCTTACCGACCGAAATCTTAATACCACCTTCTTTGACCCGGCCGGAGGAGGGGATCCAATCCTTTACCAGCACTTATTCTGGTTCTTTGGACACCCGGAAGTATATATTCTCATTTTACCTGGCTTTGGTATGATTTCACACATCGTCGCCTATTACTCTGGCAAAAAAGAACCCTTTGGCTATATGGGCATAGTATGAGCAATAATGGCTATTGGTCTTCTAGGCTTTATTGTATGAGCTCATCACATATTTACAGTTGGCATGGACGTAGACACACGTGCCTACTTTACATCTGCCACAATAATTATCGCAATTCCCACCGGCGTTAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTTGCAACCCTTCATGGGGGCTCTATTAAATGAGAGACACCCCTTTTATGGGCCCTTGGCTTTATTTTCCTGTTTACAGTAGGGGGGCTTACAGGCATTGTTCTAGCCAATTCATCTCTAGATATTGTACTCC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at British Antarctic Survey
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
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Wikipedia

Sebastes atrovirens

Sebastes atrovirens is a species of fish in the rockfish family known by the common name kelp rockfish. It is native to the Pacific Ocean along the coast of California in the United States and Baja California in Mexico.[1]

This species reaches about 42 centimeters in length. Its life span is up to 15[2] to 20[1] or even 25 years. Individuals may be tan, brown, green, reddish, blackish, whitish, or brown-mottled. The snout has an "up-turned" look.[3] This species was recently moved from the Sebastes subgenus Mebarus[4] to Pteropodus, which also includes brown, gopher, copper, black-and-yellow, calico, quillback, China, and grass rockfishes.[5]

This marine fish is distributed from Sonoma County, California, south to central Baja California. The climate is subtropical. It lives in coastal waters up to 42 meters deep, but usually not more than about 12 meters. Its habitat includes kelp beds and rocky seabeds.[1] It commonly associates with several other species of rockfish in this habitat, but it is more closely associated with the kelp than the others.[3] During the day it often rests on the kelp blades, sometimes upside down.[2] The main kelp species is Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp. Other brown algaes in the habitat can include Pterygophora californica, Cystoseira osmundacea, and species of Desmarestia.[6] It is also known from artificial habitat types, such as oil rigs.[3]

Like some other rockfish, this species can produce an auditory signal in the form of a low-frequency pulsing noise.[7]

The diet of the fish is rich in crustaceans[3] such as the isopod Pentidotea resecata,[6] as well as cephalopods and gastropods,[2] and it is known to prey on juvenile blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus)[3] and plainfin midshipmen (Porichthys notatus).[6] It does most of its hunting at night.[3] In captivity, larvae have been reared on diets of Brachionus plicatilis, a rotifer, with supplements of copepods and veligers as they develop. The nauplius of the brine shrimp Artemia salina becomes the main food later.[5] Captive adults can be maintained on chopped squid[8] and live prey such as the night smelt (Spirinchus starksi).[6]

Spawning starts in February in the northern part of its range, and in March farther south.[3] A female will mate with multiple males and can store sperm, yielding broods of eggs that have multiple fathers.[8] Like other fish of its genus, this species is viviparous.[1] The gravid female expels her whole brood at once, only during the night.[8] The larva is between 4 and 5 millimeters long at birth. It still has a small bit of yolk or oil on its belly which is absorbed within a few days. It quickly develops its head spines. It has some pigmentation at birth in the form of melanophores and xanthophores and develops more as it grows.[5]

This rockfish is an important prey item for many other animals. The larva is consumed by siphonophores and chaetognaths.[2] The juvenile is food for other fish, such as lingcod, cabezon, and salmon, as well as many birds, pinnipeds, and porpoises. The adult is prey for sharks, dolphins, and seals.[3]

This species is taken in spearfishing[3] and angling.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Froese, R. and D. Pauly, Eds. Sebastes atrovirens. FishBase. 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e Essential Fish Habitat: West Coast Groundfish Draft Revised Appendix. Habitat/Ecosystem Team, West Coast Groundfish. Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. 1998. pg. 100.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Abbreviated Life History of Kelp Rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens). California Department of Fish and Game.
  4. ^ Li, Z., et al. (2006). Phylogeny of members of the rockfish (Sebastes) subgenus Pteropodus and their relatives. Can. J. Zool. 84 527–36.
  5. ^ a b c Watson, W. and L. L. Robertson. 2004. Development of kelp rockfish Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan and Gilbert 1880), and brown rockfish, S. auriculatus (Girard 1854), from birth to pelagic juvenile stage, with notes on early larval development of black-and-yellow rockfish, S. chrysomelas (Jordan and Gilbert 1880), reared in the laboratory (Pisces: Sebastidae). NOAA Prof. Paper NMFS 3, 30 pp.
  6. ^ a b c d Van Dykhuizen, G. S. (1983). Activity patterns and feeding chronology of the kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens, in a central California kelp forest. Thesis. San Jose State University.
  7. ^ Širović, A., et al. (2009). Rockfish sounds and their potential use for population monitoring in the Southern California Bight. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66(6) 981-990.
  8. ^ a b c Sogard, S. M., et al. (2008). Multiple paternity in viviparous kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens. Environ Biol Fish 81 7-13.
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