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Overview

Brief Summary

Living Material

Bumpus (1898a) reported that females with eggs were collected at Woods Hole during the month of May and (1898b) that oviposition was observed as late as August 7. Thompson (1899) states that the larvae had disappeared from his collections by September 4.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Living Material

Bumpus (1898a) reported that females with eggs were collected at Woods Hole during the month of May and (1898b) that oviposition was observed as late as August 7. Thompson (1899) states that the larvae had disappeared from his collections by September 4.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Distribution

Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway) to Gulf of Mexico; Cobscook Bay to Florida
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 863 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 137 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 64
  Temperature range (°C): 21.296 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 1.601
  Salinity (PPS): 34.478 - 36.162
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.671 - 5.176
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.221
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.607

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 64

Temperature range (°C): 21.296 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 1.601

Salinity (PPS): 34.478 - 36.162

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.671 - 5.176

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.221

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 2.607
 
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Early Stages of Development

About one month passes between spawning and the zoea stage.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Later Stages in Development

Libinia emarginata may be distinguished from the less commonly found L. dubia by the presence on its back of nine median spines, as contrasted with the six median spines characteristic of L. dubia. The animals occur on mud flats, and are abundant. The eggs are carried by the females on the legs; those egg-masses which are bright vermilion in color are best for study, since they contain the early stages. Later stages of development are chocolate-brown in color. Zoea and megalops larvae (of this and other crabs) are sometimes obtained by towing in the Hole at Woods Hole, Mass. Frequently, an electric light shining near the surface of the Eel Pond water (as, for example, the Nereis-collecting light commonly used) will attract vast numbers of larvae, which may then be dipped up.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Early Stages of Development

About one month passes between spawning and the zoea stage.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Later Stages in Development

Libinia emarginata may be distinguished from the less commonly found L. dubia by the presence on its back of nine median spines, as contrasted with the six median spines characteristic of L. dubia. The animals occur on mud flats, and are abundant. The eggs are carried by the females on the legs; those egg-masses which are bright vermilion in color are best for study, since they contain the early stages. Later stages of development are chocolate-brown in color. Zoea and megalops larvae (of this and other crabs) are sometimes obtained by towing in the Hole at Woods Hole, Mass. Frequently, an electric light shining near the surface of the Eel Pond water (as, for example, the Nereis-collecting light commonly used) will attract vast numbers of larvae, which may then be dipped up.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Reproduction

Breeding Season

The animals should be kept in large aquaria supplied with running sea water.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

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Breeding Season

The animals should be kept in large aquaria supplied with running sea water.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Growth

Rate of Development

The nauplius stage has the first three pairs of appendages; later stages have five or more pairs of appendages, and the stomodeum, ventral fold, dorsal shield, telson and ganglia may be found. It is necessary to supply the older larvae with Ulva and diatoms.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Rate of Development

The nauplius stage has the first three pairs of appendages; later stages have five or more pairs of appendages, and the stomodeum, ventral fold, dorsal shield, telson and ganglia may be found. It is necessary to supply the older larvae with Ulva and diatoms.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Camouflage

This species attaches bits of algae and detritus to its back in order to blend in with its surroundings and protect it from predators. 

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Libinia emarginata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATAGTAGGCACTTCTCTA---AGATTAATTATTCGAGCTGAACTTGGTCAGCCAGGAACACTTATTGGAAAT---GACCAAATTTATAATGTCGCCGTTACAGCTCACGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATCATGATTGGGGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTGTTCCCCTTATA---CTAGGAGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCACGTATAAACAATATAAGATTTTGACTTTTACCCCCTTCATTAACATTACTTTTAATAAGAGGAATAGTTGAAAGAGGGGTCGGTACAGGATGGACTGTCTATCCTCCATTGGCTGCCGCTATTGCCCACGCAGGAGCTTCTGTAGATATAGGA---ATTTTTTCACTACATTTAGCAGGAGTATCCTCTATTTTAGGAGCTGTAAATTTTATAACAACCGTAATTAACATACGATCCTATGGAATAACTATAGACCAAATACCTTTATTTGTGTGGTCTGTATTTATTACCGCTATTTTATTATTATTATCATTACCTGTTTTAGCTGGT---GCTATCACTATACTTCTTACCGATCGTAATCTTAATACATCTTTTTTTGACCCAGCGGGAGGGGGGGATCCTATCCTTTACCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTT
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Libinia emarginata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Methods of Observation

The early development of the centrolecithal egg of Libinia is essentially the same as that of the crayfish, Astacus. Since the paper by Reichenbach (1886) is in a journal which is not readily accessible, this account is based upon the summary given by MacBride (1914), and on the description by Brooks and Herrick (1892) of the cleavage of Alpheus and Stenopus.

The zygote nucleus occupies a central position in the fertilized egg and there divides. Protoplasmic division is said not to begin until after the fourth nuclear division, by which time the nuclei have migrated to the periphery. The daughter nuclei are at first internal but gradually migrate outward until they reach the surface. At this time the egg is imperfectly divided (by radiating planes of cytoplasm between masses of yolk granules) into a series of pillars, each of which contains one of the daughter nuclei. These are referred to as "columnar blastomeres." The yolk pyramids persist for only a short time; then the dividing planes disappear, and a flattened "skin" of cells remains, surrounding a large mass of yolk. This "skin" of cells is termed a ''blastoderm.'' This stage corresponds to a blastula, the blastocoele being filled with an unsegmented mass of yolk.

Preceding the formation of the gastrula, there is an increase in the number of the blastoderm cells on one side of the egg; they are also thicker here and this becomes the ventral surface of the embryo. They press on one another laterally as they increase in number and become columnar in character, to form the ventral plate. This is on the future neural side of the embryo. Five circular areas develop in this ventral plate, in each of which the cells are arranged in concentric curves, and in lines radiating from a central point. These areas may be clearly distinguished in an embryo of this age after fixation with mercuric chloride, if it is examined by reflected light. The two anterior areas are the "cephalic lobes," or the rudiments of the paired eyes and cerebral ganglia. The thoracico-abdominal thickenings posterior to these constitute the next pair of rudiments. Just posterior to these, on the mid-line, is the central disc, or endodermic rudiment.

At the anterior margin of the endodermic rudiment, a groove develops. This is the beginning of the blastopore. The appearance of this groove (the endodermic groove) marks the beginning of the process of gastrulation. The endodermic groove later becomes a complete circle, as the periphery of the endodermal disc is invaginated, giving rise to the ''endodermal button." As the button is carried in, a circular blastopore forms, later changing into an elliptical blastopore. The front border of the endodermic rudiment is the point of origin of the mesoderm. The endodermal tube becomes pinched off as a blind sac; much later, the proctodeum and stomodeum grow through to it. The proctodeum appears in between, and just posterior to the thoracico-abdominal rudiments, where the blastopore formerly was located. Other embryonic areas develop a short time after the first five. Three of these are the rudiments of the anterior paired appendages: first antenna (antennule), second antenna, and mandibles, and are characteristic of all crustacean larvae. When these rudiments appear, the stage is called a nauplius.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Care of Adults

Forceps may be used to pick the eggs and larvae from the legs of the female. Cleavage and subsequent stages of development can be studied in the living egg only with considerable difficulty, and it is therefore advisable to fix the embryos. The following methods are useful:

1. Place the eggs in strong aceto-carmine (in a very little sea water). After about ten minutes, transfer them to 50% glycerine, which causes the stain to fade.

2. Early embryos are readily studied after the addition of 1% chromic acid to a drop of sea water in which the embryos are contained. After about five minutes, wash the embryos in water and mount them on glass slides under mica coverslips. 3. Drop the older stages into strong mercuric chloride solution; the embryonic area will whiten in a few minutes.

Use reflected light and a low power of the microscope for observation of all stages which have been fixed.

Study of the zoea stage in the living condition requires that the larvae be anaesthetized (with magnesium sulfate or other agents). With the use of the higher powers of the microscope, such details as the muscles, compound eyes, contractile heart and intestine can be observed.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

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Methods of Observation

The early development of the centrolecithal egg of Libinia is essentially the same as that of the crayfish, Astacus. Since the paper by Reichenbach (1886) is in a journal which is not readily accessible, this account is based upon the summary given by MacBride (1914), and on the description by Brooks and Herrick (1892) of the cleavage of Alpheus and Stenopus.

The zygote nucleus occupies a central position in the fertilized egg and there divides. Protoplasmic division is said not to begin until after the fourth nuclear division, by which time the nuclei have migrated to the periphery. The daughter nuclei are at first internal but gradually migrate outward until they reach the surface. At this time the egg is imperfectly divided (by radiating planes of cytoplasm between masses of yolk granules) into a series of pillars, each of which contains one of the daughter nuclei. These are referred to as "columnar blastomeres." The yolk pyramids persist for only a short time; then the dividing planes disappear, and a flattened "skin" of cells remains, surrounding a large mass of yolk. This "skin" of cells is termed a ''blastoderm.'' This stage corresponds to a blastula, the blastocoele being filled with an unsegmented mass of yolk.

Preceding the formation of the gastrula, there is an increase in the number of the blastoderm cells on one side of the egg; they are also thicker here and this becomes the ventral surface of the embryo. They press on one another laterally as they increase in number and become columnar in character, to form the ventral plate. This is on the future neural side of the embryo. Five circular areas develop in this ventral plate, in each of which the cells are arranged in concentric curves, and in lines radiating from a central point. These areas may be clearly distinguished in an embryo of this age after fixation with mercuric chloride, if it is examined by reflected light. The two anterior areas are the "cephalic lobes," or the rudiments of the paired eyes and cerebral ganglia. The thoracico-abdominal thickenings posterior to these constitute the next pair of rudiments. Just posterior to these, on the mid-line, is the central disc, or endodermic rudiment.

At the anterior margin of the endodermic rudiment, a groove develops. This is the beginning of the blastopore. The appearance of this groove (the endodermic groove) marks the beginning of the process of gastrulation. The endodermic groove later becomes a complete circle, as the periphery of the endodermal disc is invaginated, giving rise to the ''endodermal button." As the button is carried in, a circular blastopore forms, later changing into an elliptical blastopore. The front border of the endodermic rudiment is the point of origin of the mesoderm. The endodermal tube becomes pinched off as a blind sac; much later, the proctodeum and stomodeum grow through to it. The proctodeum appears in between, and just posterior to the thoracico-abdominal rudiments, where the blastopore formerly was located. Other embryonic areas develop a short time after the first five. Three of these are the rudiments of the anterior paired appendages: first antenna (antennule), second antenna, and mandibles, and are characteristic of all crustacean larvae. When these rudiments appear, the stage is called a nauplius.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Care of Adults

Forceps may be used to pick the eggs and larvae from the legs of the female. Cleavage and subsequent stages of development can be studied in the living egg only with considerable difficulty, and it is therefore advisable to fix the embryos. The following methods are useful:

1. Place the eggs in strong aceto-carmine (in a very little sea water). After about ten minutes, transfer them to 50% glycerine, which causes the stain to fade.

2. Early embryos are readily studied after the addition of 1% chromic acid to a drop of sea water in which the embryos are contained. After about five minutes, wash the embryos in water and mount them on glass slides under mica coverslips. 3. Drop the older stages into strong mercuric chloride solution; the embryonic area will whiten in a few minutes.

Use reflected light and a low power of the microscope for observation of all stages which have been fixed.

Study of the zoea stage in the living condition requires that the larvae be anaesthetized (with magnesium sulfate or other agents). With the use of the higher powers of the microscope, such details as the muscles, compound eyes, contractile heart and intestine can be observed.

  • Brooks, W. K., and F. H. Herrick, 1892. The embryology and metamorphosis of the Macroura. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., 5: 325-574.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898a. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the month of May, 1898. Science, 8: 58-61.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898b. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Macbride, E. W., 1914. Text-Book of Embryology. Vol. I. Invertebrata. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London.
  • Reichenbach, H., 1886. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Flusskrebses. Abh. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Ges., 14: 1-137.
  • Thompson M. T., 1899. The breeding of animals at Woods Hole during the month of September, 1898. Science, 9: 581-583.
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Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

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Wikipedia

Libinia emarginata

Libinia emarginata, the portly spider crab, common spider crab or nine-spined spider crab, is a species of stenohaline crab that lives on the Atlantic coast of North America.

Distribution[edit]

Libinia emarginata occurs from Nova Scotia to the Florida Keys and through the Gulf of Mexico.[3] It lives at depths of up to 160 ft (49 m), with exceptional records of up to 400 ft (120 m).[4]

Description[edit]

Libinia emarginata is roughly triangular in outline and very heavily calcified, with a carapace about 4 in (100 mm) long and a leg span of 12 inches (300 mm).[4] The whole crab is khaki, and the carapace is covered in spines and tubercles,[5] and, as with other decorator crabs, often clothes itself in debris and small invertebrates.[4]

Reproduction[edit]

A mating aggregation of L. emarginata

Mating takes place, and eggs are produced from June to September. The eggs are initially a bright orange-red, but turn brown during development, which takes around 25 days. The eggs then hatch as zoea larvae, and the female can produce another brood of eggs within 12 hours, unlike many other crabs, where females only mate directly after molting.[6]

Similar species[edit]

Libinia emarginata is very similar to Libinia dubia with which it is largely sympatric. They can be told apart by examining the row of spines along the center of the carapace: in L. emarginata there are nine, while in L. dubia there are only six.[5] Also, the rostrum of L. dubia is more deeply forked than that of L. emarginata.[4]

Ecology and behavior[edit]

Libinia emarginata lives on various substrates, at depths of up to 150 ft (46 m). Adults are sluggish and not aggressive, and younger crabs are frequently covered with sponges and hydroids.[5]

Despite its small size, in comparison to other predatory crabs, L. emarginata feeds on large starfish such as Asterias forbesi.[7]

Unusually for crabs, L. emarginata preferentially walks forwards, rather than sideways, although they are also capable of sidelong movement.[8] Its skeletal,[9] muscular[8] and neural anatomy[10] more closely resembles that of forward-walking species, rather than that of more closely related sideways-walking species.

L. emarginata will mate in large aggregations.[11] These aggregations may function as a protective mechanism during reproduction.[11] Males of L. emarginata show an unusual "obstetrical behavior", in which gravid females who are about to release their larvae are held behind the male and aggressively protected.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Libinia emarginata Leach, 1815". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  2. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17: 1–286. 
  3. ^ Harriet Perry & Kirsten Larsen (2004). "A Picture Guide to Shelf Invertebrates from the Northern Gulf of Mexico" (PDF). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  4. ^ a b c d Andrew J. Martinez & Candace Storm Martinez (2003). "Arthropods". Marine Life of the North Atlantic: Canada to New England. Aqua Quest Publications. pp. 144–175. ISBN 978-1-881652-32-8. 
  5. ^ a b c Alice Jane Lippson & Robert L. Lippson (2006). "Crustaceans of the shallows". Life in the Chesapeake Bay (3rd ed.). JHU Press. pp. 153–158. ISBN 978-0-8018-8337-8. 
  6. ^ a b Gertrude W. Hinsch (1968). "Reproductive behavior in the spider crab, Libinia emarginata (L.)". The Biological Bulletin 135 (2): 273–278. 
  7. ^ John C. Aldrich (1976). "The spider crab Libinia emarginata Leach, 1815 (Decapoda Brachyura), and the starfish, an unsuitable predator but a cooperative prey". Crustaceana 31 (2): 151–156. doi:10.1163/156854076X00189. 
  8. ^ a b A. G. Vidal-Gadea & J. H. Belanger (2009). "Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea)". Arthropod Structure & Development 38 (3): 179–194. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2008.12.002. PMID 19166968. 
  9. ^ A. G. Vidal-Gadea, M. D. Rinehart & J. H. Belanger (2008). "Skeletal adaptation for sideways and forwards walking in three species of decapod crustaceans". Arthropod Structure & Development 37 (2): 95–108. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.06.002. PMID 18089130. 
  10. ^ Andrés G. Vidal-Gadea & Jim H. Belanger (2013). "The evolutionary transition to sideways-walking gaits in brachyurans was accompanied by a reduction in the number of motor neurons innervating proximal leg musculature". Arthropod Structure & Development (in press). doi:10.1016/j.asd.2013.07.003. 
  11. ^ a b R. E. DeGoursey & P. J. Auster (1989). M. A. Lang & W. C. Jaap, ed. "Aspects of a mating aggregation of the spider crab, Libinia emarginata". Diving for Science…1989. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences annual scientific diving symposium 28 September – 1 October 1989 (Woods Hole, MA: Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution). 
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