Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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Range Description

This species is found along the eastern part of North America from the New River north and the Mississippi and Atlantic basins from the New River south following the strike of the Appalachians (R. Thoma pers. comm. 2010). It is found from New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario in Canada, south to Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama in the USA along the Atlantic coast (Hobbs 1989, Taylor et al. 2005). It has an estimated Extent of Occurrence (EOO) exceeding 1,000,000 km2.
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Geographic Range

Cambarus bartonii can be found in the eastern and southern parts of the United States as well as the southeastern part of Canada. They are most often found, however, in the range from New Brunswick, Canada to northern Georgia and in eastern parts of Kentucky and Tennessee.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

  • Green, J. 1967. Crustaceans. Pp. 172-175 in The Larousse Encyclopedia of Animal Life. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book Company.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) The nominal species found in New Brunswick, Canada, west to Kentucky and Tennessee, south to Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina and east to the Atlantic Ocean (Hobbs, 1989). Taylor and Schuster (2004) cite Tennessee and northwestern Georgia to southwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and west to Kentucky for the subspecies cavatus. Eversole and Jones (2004) cite New Brunswick, Canada, to northern Georgia and eastern parts of Kentucky and Tennessee with populations in South Carolina and Georgia showing considerable variation across its range. In the southern portion of its range, it is confined to the Blue Ridge province of the Appalachian Highlands. In the northern portion of its range it occurs in the St. Lawrence basin in Ontario and Quebec to the southern Hudson Bay drainage.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Cambarus bartonii is a freshwater crustacean. On first inspection it looks rather "lobster-like". It has a sharp snout, and its eyes are on movable stalks. The thin, but tough exoskeleton is dark brown in color - sometimes with a slightly red tint. The exact shade depends on what the bottom substrate of the habitat looks like.

In terms of appendages, the most noticeable ones are its chelipeds. These appendages are attached to the thorax and are also referred to as the first walking legs. However, these appendages have claws and are used for protection and catching food, not walking. Cambarus bartonii also has four other pairs of walking legs attached to the thorax. The abdominal appendages of Cambarus bartonii are called swimmerets or pleopods, and they are much smaller than walking legs and not suitable for swimming. The male swimmerets are modified to transfer sperm packets to the female during reproduction and have a spatulate shape. What looks like a fan on the end of the abdomen is really many broad flat appendages called uropods. All of these appendages are attached on the ventral side of Cambarus bartonii, and they are all biramous. In general, the abdomen is large and usually extended; it can however, be flexed under the cephalothorax. The first abdominal segment is usually smaller than those posterior to it.

Cambarus bartonii has an open circulatory system. It possesses a diamond-shaped heart which lies just anterior to the abdominal segments on the dorsal midline. The heart is surrounded by a thin pericardial sac. Just anterior to the heart lie the gonads. The testes are white, and the ovaries orange. Along the dorsal midline of the cephalothorax lie the cardiac stomach and the pyloric stomach. Just posterior and laterally to the stomachs lies a large digestive gland. The ventral nerve cord lies beneath the internal organs, and the brain lies between and beneath the eyestalks.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

  • Vodopich, D., R. Moore. 1999. Biology Labratory Manual. Burr Ridge: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Russel-Hunter, W. 1979. A Life of Invertebrates. New York: McMillan Publishing Co Inc.
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Diagnostic Description

Both terminal elements of pleopod at right angles to shaft; rostrum only shallowly excavate and acarinate; rostral margins unthickened.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Cambarus bartonii is usually found in stream and spring habitats, but is occasionally seen in ponds (Hobbs 1989) and lakes (Jezerinac 1985). This species often burrows along streams and in seepage areas up to 1,180m above sea level (Williams and Bivens 1996). The nominal subspecies seems to prefer running water; but subspecies cavatus can be found in burrows in riparian areas, almost always in contact with the stream bed. In North Carolina, it occurs in large rivers to small, high-elevation mountain seeps and is a habitat generalist (Simmons and Fraley, 2010).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is usually found in fast flowing, rocky areas (Taylor et al. 2007), but is occasionally seen in ponds (Hobbs 1989) and lakes (Jezerinac 1985). Taylor et al. (2005) noted that it is found in the high elevation lakes in the Canadian Shield, where pH values can be as low as 5.0. Its burrows are often found in gravel and sand under larger rocks (Mar 1983) and along streams (Williams and Bivens 1996).Burrows have been known to be as deep as 1 m (Taylor et al. 2005). Spring to autumn delineates the period of reproduction with the offspring hatching in July and August (Taylor et al. 2005). The species has a life span of three to four years (Hamr and Berrill 1985). The carapace length ranges between 25 mm and 30 mm (Hamr and Berrill 1985).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Cambarus bartonii dwell on the bottoms of streams, creeks, and small rivers and lakes. They construct burrows, sometimes called "chimneys". Their burrows can be simple hollows under stone or more intricate, with lateral passageways. Chimneys are found along the water's edge. Most of the structure is under water, but the top sticks out and resembles a chimney. Chimneys vary in size, the largest opening being about eight centimeters.

Habitat Regions: terrestrial ; freshwater

Aquatic Biomes: lakes and ponds; rivers and streams

  • McMan, L. 1960. An Occurence of Chimney Construction by the Crayfish *Cambarus bartonii*. Ecology, 41: 383-385.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

No precise data; home range probably does not exceed 100 m.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Unknown, but probably opportunistic, mostly detritus.

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Food Habits

Cambarus bartonii is a predator and a scavenger. It feeds on decaying organic remains but also catches small animals. Its main sources of food include snails, alga, insect larva, various types of worms, and tadpoles. It finds its food on the bottom of the water source it inhabits or in the soil near the water.

Animal Foods: amphibians; eggs; insects; mollusks; aquatic or marine worms; aquatic crustaceans

Plant Foods: algae

Other Foods: detritus

Primary Diet: omnivore

  • Banister, K., A. Campbell. 1985. Lobsters and Freshwater Crayfish. Pp. 236-239 in The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York: Equinox Ltd.
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Associations

Known predators

Cambarus bartonii (Cambarus bartonii [Crayfish] (N=1)) is prey of:
Amia calva
Ardeidae
Threskiornithidae
Salvelinus fontinalis
Semotilus atromaculatus

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida, South Florida (Swamp)
Canada: Ontario (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and G. B. Bowman, Vertebrate predator subsystem. In: Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man, A. I. Breymeyer and G. M. Van Dyne, Eds. (International Biological Programme Series, no. 19, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), pp. 591-
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 105-106.
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Known prey organisms

Cambarus bartonii (Cambarus bartonii [Crayfish] (N=1)) preys on:
periphyton
phytoplankton
detritus
Copepoda
Cladocera
Amphipoda
Gammarus minus
Gammarus bousfieldi
Caecidotea brevicauda
Fissidens juliaus
Nasturtium officinale
epiphytic algae
Plant material
Aelosoma
Hydropsyche
Lumbriculidae

Based on studies in:
USA: Florida, South Florida (Swamp)
USA: Kentucky, Station 1 (River)
USA: North Carolina, Coweeta (River)
USA: Maine, Martins (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and G. B. Bowman, Vertebrate predator subsystem. In: Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man, A. I. Breymeyer and G. M. Van Dyne, Eds. (International Biological Programme Series, no. 19, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, 1980), pp. 591-
  • W. L. Minckley, 1963. The ecology of a spring stream, Doe Run, Meade County, Kentucky. Wildl. Monogr. 11:1-124, from pp. 97, 102.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend, CR. 2003. Impacts on stream food webs of native and exotic forest: an intercontinental comparison. Ecology 84:145-161
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Reeves et al. (2000) included Twin Snakes Cave in Dade Co., Georgia. It was recently found to be extant in the Catawba River basin in North Carolina but not extending into South Carolina (Alderman, 2005). It is found throughout most river basins in North Carolina, except the Broad and Catawba where it is primarily found in the western headwaters along teh eastern Continental Divide (Simmons and Fraley, 2010). In the Cumberland Plateau it occurs in tributaries of the Tennessee River upstream from Walden Gorge (Bouchard, 1974). In Kentucky, subspecies cavatus is widespread but sporadic in the eastern half with records from all major river drainages except the Green (Taylor and Schuster, 2004). Peake et al. (2004) collected this species in the upper Cumberland and upper Kentucky River basins in Kentucky. Jezerinac and Thoma (1984) cite Ohio distribution as Jefferson Co. Cambarus bartonii bartonii is stable in West Virginia and occurs throughout the Atlantic Slope (Potomac, James, Ridge and Valley, Allegheny Mountains, Appalachian Plateau regions) (Loughman and Welsh, 2010). Cambarus bartonii cavatus is stable in West Virginia and occurs in headwaters streams and wetlands throughout central and southern portions of the Ohio River direct drains, western portions of the Kanawha River, and southwestern Ohio River basins (Loughman and Welsh, 2010). In New York's Hudson River drainage, Smith (1979) added Rensselaer and Washington Cos., frequently only in the Poestenkill and upper Hoosic River system. In Vermont, it is known from the Hudson drainage (Battenkill) and the Champlain Basin (Kart et al., 2005). In Maryland, it is stable and is distributed widely from the eastern continental divide to the Coastal Plain as well as tributaries of the Potomac River in southern Maryland (Killian et al., 2010). Francois (1959) cites it in New Jersey in Bergen, Essex, Hunterdon, Mercer, Morris, Passaic, Sussex, Union, and Warren Cos.; as well as Bucks, Northampton, and Philadelphia Cos., Pennsylvania. In Massachusetts it is confined to tributaries flowing into the Hoosic River basin in the Hudson River drainage system, with a few records outside the Hoosic River that are the result of introduction (Smith, 2000). Horowitz and Flinders (2004) found it to be the most common species encountered (9 of 15 stations) in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley and Highlands regions of New Jersey. It was recently documented in the vicinity of Plummers Island (bank of Potomac River), Montgomery Co., Maryland (Norden, 2008).

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: This species is abundant and common in at least parts of its range (Jezerinac, 1991; Taylor et al., 2005).

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: No data; probably circadian. Hamr and Berill (1985) estimated maximum age of 4 years.

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Reproduction

Mate in fall, spawn in early spring. In North Carolina, Form I males were collected in April, May, June, August, September, October, November, and December in 7-20C (Simmons and Fraley, 2010).

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Mating occurs most commonly in the spring and may also occur during the summer. Mating usually takes place at night because the chances of male and female encountering each other is nine times greater at night.

Reproduction involves pairing and can occur in two ways. The first is the deposit of sperm into a seminal receptacle in the female. This occurs when a sperm from the male flows down the grooves of the first pleopods and into the female receptacle. Sperm exits the male crayfish at the base of the fifth pair of walking legs through a pore. Eggs are released at the base of the third pair of walking legs. The other form of reproduction involves the transfer of a spermatophore, in which case fertilization is internal.

Either way, the fertilized eggs are retained for maturation on the pleopods of the female. They hatch on the pleopods and stay attatched to the mother until shortly after their second molt. A female carrying eggs is said to be "in berry" because the mass of eggs look like a berry. Females are most commonly "in berry" during May and June.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

  • Vodopich, D., R. Moore. 1999. Biology Labratory Manual. Burr Ridge: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Roberts, T. 1994. Light, Eyestalk Chemical, and Certain Other Factors as Regulators of Community Activity for the Crayfish. Ecological Monographs, 14: p 376-378.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cambarus bartonii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACATTATATTTTATTTTTGGCACCTGGGCTGGAATAGTAGGAACTTCATTA---AGGATAATTATTCGGGTTGAGTTAGGTCAGGTGGGTAGATTGATTGGGGAT---GACCAGATTTATAATGTAGTAGTAACAGCCCATGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATTATGATCGGGGGCTTTGGGAATTGGCTGCTTCCTTTAATA---TTGGGAGCTCCGGATATAGCTTTTCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGGTTGCTTCCATTTTCTCTAACATTATTACTAGCTAGGGGTATAGTGGAGAGGGGGGTAGGTACTGGGTGAACTGTCTACCCTCCTCTCGCTTCAGCAATTGCTCATGCGGGTGCGTCAGTAGATCTTGGT---ATTTTTTCTTTACATTTGGCAGGAGTATCTTCCATTTTAGGATCAGTTAATTTTATAACAACAGCTATTAATATACGAATGGCTGGTATAACTATAGACCGCATACCGTTATTTGTTTGATCTGTATTTATTACTACTGTTTTATTATTGTTATCTTTACCTGTATTAGCGGGG---GCCATTTCAATATTGTTGACAGATCGAAATTTAAATACTTCTTTTTTTGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGCGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACATTTG------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cambarus bartonii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: The nominal species widespread and abundant, found in New Brunswick, Canada, west to Kentucky and Tennessee, south to Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina and east to the Atlantic Ocean. It likely also occurs (different morph- cavatus) Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia. It is secure throughout its range and faces few threats although localized declines are occurring due to competetive exclusion by Cambarus robustus, and habitat degradation.

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable

Comments: It is often the most abundant and dominant species when found (Woodall and Wallace, 1972; Huryn and Wallace, 1987, Griffith et al., 1994; 1996, Seiler and Turner, 2004).

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

Comments: It is a habitat generalist (Simmons and Fraley, 2010). In laboratory tests, this species tolerated considerable acidity when acutely exposed to greatly reduced pH levels, indicating that occasional episodes of higher than normal acidity in southern Appalachian streams are not necessarily a threat to intermolt adult and juveniles (DiStefano and Neves, 1991).

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Cordeiro, J., Hamr, P., Skelton, C. & Thoma, R.F.

Reviewer/s
Collen, B. & Richman, N.

Contributor/s
Livingston, F., Livingston, F., Soulsby, A.-M., Batchelor, A., Dyer, E., Whitton, F., Milligan, H.T., Smith, J., Lutz, M.L., De Silva, R., McGuinness, S., Kasthala, G., Jopling, B., Sullivan, K. & Cryer, G.

Justification
Cambarus bartonii has been assessed as Least Concern. This species has a wide distribution along the east coast of North America and is known to be abundant throughout of its range. There are no known major threats to the population, although localised declines are occurring due to competitive exclusion from Cambarus robustus, and habitat loss and degradation.
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This species is not known to be endangered.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

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Population

Population
This species is abundant and common in parts of its range (Jezerinac 1991, Taylor et al. 2005).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: Overall this species faces few threats. In certain areas, it faces localized threats. Increasing range expansion of Cambarus robustus found to competitively exclude Cambarus bartonii in Ontario (Guiasu et al., 1996; Guiasu and Dunham, 1999). Localized declines can also be attributed to general habitat degradation and loss. Fish predation poses a greater threat to small rather than larger individuals (Englund and Krupa, 2000) and predation effects were larger for deeper pools than shallow ones (Englund, 1999).

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Major Threats

This species faces few threats, although localised disturbance may exist. The introduced Rusty Crayfish (Oroconectes rusticus) might be able to compete with this species (Taylor et al. 2005). Furthermore, the closely related Cambarus robustus has been found to competitively exclude this species from some of its range in Ontario (Guiasu et al. 1996). Localised declines can also be attributed to general habitat degradation and loss.

At a greater scale, one significant pressure is the acidification of streams that it lives in; although it has developed a tolerance to low pH levels it has been noted that juvenile and moulting crayfishes are at risk from the changing pH levels (Taylor et al. 2005).

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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measure in place for this species. Taylor et al. (2007) ranked it as Currently Stable. It has a NatureServe G-rank of G5 (Least Concern) (Taylor et al. 2007, NatureServe 2008).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: No known economic value.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known adverse effects of Cambarus bartonii on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Crayfish are a huge industry for many countries, especially France and the United States. Each year between 400,000 - 800,000 Kg are consumed (880,000 to 1,960,000 lbs). There are also 2.6 million pounds of crayfish reared in artificial impoundments each year. This creates many jobs for people in the fishing industry.

Crayfish are good to eat and provide a source of protein. They are now eaten throughout the United States and many countries around the world.

The crayfish may have medicinal benefits as well. In Kenya, a microscopic blood fluke. a schistome, is causing infection in many people. The schistome burrows through skin and moves to the bladder and other major organs, causing much damage. Scientists have found that the schistome larva hatch in freshwater snails. They have also found that the crayfish has an appetite for these freshwater snails. Putting many crayfish (although it does not say which exact species would be used; most species have an appetite for snails) in these lakes may reduce the snail population, and in turn reduce the number of infections.

Cambarus bartonii digs in the soil along streams, ponds, and rivers. It helps with agriculture because the digging causes the soil to become richer in nutrients. In many rice farms, crayfish are the second crop because farmers bring them in after the rice has been harvested to help the soil gain many nutrients. The farmers then harvest the crayfish when it is rice season again. This is not a species specific benefit, because there are many rice farms around the world.

Crayfish are also used to monitor the environmental condition of streams and rivers. Specifically, one can analyze them for the presence of particular pollutants in their tissues.

  • 1998. Crayfish. World Book Encyclopedia. London: World Book Inc..
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Wikipedia

Cambarus bartonii

Cambarus bartonii is a species of crayfish native to eastern North America, where it is called the common crayfish[1] or Appalachian brook crayfish.[2]

C. bartonii was the first crayfish to be described from North America, when Johan Christian Fabricius published it under the name Astacus Bartonii in his 1798 work Supplementum entomologiae systematicae.[3] The locality where his specimen was captured is not known, but is thought to be near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[1]

C. bartonii lives in fast–flowing, cool, rocky streams as well as shallow lakes,[4] and is found in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, and in the United States from Maine to Alabama.[2] In the south of its range, C. bartoni is restricted to the Appalachian Mountains and their foothills.[1]

Colouration is usually plain dark brown, although mottling is occasionally seen, as is a saddle-shaped marking.[5]

Several subspecies of C. bartonii have been recognised, but it is unclear how advisable this is, and work is ongoing to determine patterns of infraspecific variation.[6]

Cambarus bartonii is included as a species of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d James W. Fetzner, Jr. (December 6, 2006). "Cambarus (Cambarus) bartonii bartonii (Fabricius, 1798)". Crayfish Taxon Browser. Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 
  2. ^ a b "Comprehensive report: Cambarus bartonii - (Fabricius, 1798)". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved August 20, 2007. 
  3. ^ Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. (1942). "A generic revision of the crayfishes of the subfamily Cambarinae (Decapoda, Astacidae) with the description of a new genus and species". American Midland Naturalist (The University of Notre Dame) 28 (2): 334–357. doi:10.2307/2420820. JSTOR 2420820. 
  4. ^ Simone Rose. "The Crayfish". McMaster University. Retrieved August 20, 2007. 
  5. ^ Aimee H. Fullerton. "Cambarus (Cambarus) bartonii (Fabricius 1798)". The Crayfishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007. 
  6. ^ Keith A. Crandall, James W. Fetzner, Jr., & Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. (January 1, 2001). "Cambarus (Cambarus) bartonii carinirostris Hay 1914". Tree of Life Web Project. 
  7. ^ J. Cordeiro, P. Hamr, C. Skelton & R. F. Thoma (2010). "Cambarus bartonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Jezerinac et al. (1995) recognizes three ssp. R. F. Thoma at Ohio State University will soon be publishing on the taxonomic status of this complex.

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