Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Pachygrapsus marmoratus has a shell (carapace) length of up to 3.6 cm. It is violet brown to almost black in colour with a marbled pattern of yellowish brown. The carapace is almost square and slightly broader than long, with distinct diagonal ridges visible. It has a convex shape both longitudinally and transversely. The front edge between the eyes is particularly straight and wide with three pointed teeth on each side. The chelipeds are large and slightly unequal in size. The male chelipeds are more robust than those of the female. The closest segment to the carapace (merus) on the walking legs are prominent, and the last segment (dactyl) has small spines.This species can be distinguished from the two other species of Pachygrapsus occurring in the Mediterranean by the three teeth on the front of the carapace antero-lateral margins. It is very quick moving and exceedingly difficult to catch on account of its singular ability to slip into the narrowest of crevices.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 2

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 2
 
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 Pachygrapsus marmoratus occurs on rocks in the upper to middle shore, in the crevices of breakwaters, pier piles or similar habitats.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pachygrapsus marmoratus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGAGCTGGTATAGTTGGAACCTCTTTAAGTTTAATCATTCGAGCAGAACTTAGACAACCAGGTAGTTTAATTGGTAATGATCAAATCTATAATGTTGTTGTTACAGCTCATGCTTTTGTTATAATCTTTTTTATAGTTATACCGATTATAATTGGTGGATTTGGAAACTGGCTTGTTCCTTTGATATTAGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCTTTTCCGCGAATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGACTTTTACCTCCCTCCTTATCTCTCTTACTTACAAGAAGAATAGTGGAAAGTGGTGTGGGCACCGGATGAACTGTCTACCCACCCCTCGCCGCCGCTATCGCTCATGCCGGAGCCTCAGTTGATTTAGGAATTTTTTCTCTTCACCTAGCGGGTGTTTCCTCAATCCTAGGAGCCGTTAATTTTATAACTACTGTTATCAACATACGCTCTTATGGTATGACAATAGACCAAATACCATTGTTTGTTTGAGCAGTCTTTATTACTGCTATCCTTCTCTTGCTTTCCTTACCTGTATTAGCAGGCGCTATTACTATATTATTAACTGACCGTAACTTAAATACTTCATTCTTTGATCCTGCTGGGGGGGGTGACCCTGTCCTCTACCAACATTTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pachygrapsus marmoratus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Pachygrapsus marmoratus

Pachygrapsus marmoratus is a species of crab, sometimes called the marbled rock crab or marbled crab, which lives in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and parts of the Atlantic Ocean. It is dark violet brown, with yellow marbling, and with a body up to 36 millimetres (1.4 in) long. It is an omnivore, feeding on algae and various animals including mussels and limpets.

Description[edit]

P. marmoratus has a square carapace 22–36 millimetres (0.87–1.42 in) long, which is dark violet brown with marbling in yellow.[2] It can be distinguished from related species of Pachygrapsus in the Mediterranean Sea (Pachygrapsus maurus and Pachygrapsus transversus)[3] by the presence of three teeth on each side of the carapace.[2] It is capable of very rapid movements, and it uses this ability to dart into crevices, making it difficult to catch.[2]

Distribution[edit]

It is widespread in Southern Europe,[4] from the Black Sea to the Moroccan coast, and along the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, Spain and France,[5] and was observed as early as 1996 as far north as Southampton in the English Channel.[5] This range expansion may be due to the warming of the surface waters.[6]

Ecology[edit]

P. marmoratus is an omnivore, but not an opportunist; crabs consume similar proportions of algae and animals however abundant they are in the crab's habitat. The favoured animals in the diet of P. marmoratus are mussels, limpets and its own species.[4] When attacking the limpet Patella depressa, Pachygrapsus marmoratus uses a consistent method, which is usually unsuccessful.[7] On more sheltered shores, P. grapsus eats fewer mussels, but compensates with a greater consumption of barnacles.[8]

Predators of Pachygrapsus marmoratus include the musky octopus, Eledone moschata.[9]

The larvae of P. marmoratus are planktonic and may survive for up to 31 days. This results in high levels of gene flow between populations, and allows the species to rapidly colonise new areas.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17: 1–286. 
  2. ^ a b c Rose Edwards (2005). "Pachygrapsus marmoratus: a marbled rock crab". Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  3. ^ A. M. Vaccaro & C. Pipitone (2005). "First record of Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850) (Brachyura, Grapsidae) in Italian waters". Crustaceana 78 (6): 677–683. doi:10.1163/156854005774353511. 
  4. ^ a b S. Cannicci, M. Gomei, B. Boddi & M. Vannini (2002). "Feeding habits and natural diet of the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: Opportunistic browser or selective feeder?". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54 (6): 983–1001. doi:10.1006/ecss.2001.0869. 
  5. ^ a b Ray W. Ingle & Paul F. Clark (2006). "First reported occurrences of the marbled crab, Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea) in southern coastal waters of the British Isles". JMBA2 Biodiversity Records. 
  6. ^ Jean-Claude Dauvin (2009). "New record of the marbled crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Grapsoidea) on the coast of northern Cotentin, Normandy, western English Channel". Marine Biodiversity Records 2: e92. doi:10.1017/S1755267209001109. 
  7. ^ Ana Silva, Diana Boaventura, Augusto Flores, Pedro Ré and Stephen J. Hawkins (2004). "Rare predation by the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus on the limpet Patella depressa". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84 (2): 367–370. doi:10.1017/S0025315404009294h. 
  8. ^ Ana Catarina Ferreira Silva, Sónia Brazão, Steve J. Hawkins, Richard C. Thompson & Diana M. Boaventura (2009). "Abundance, population structure and claw morphology of the semi-terrestrial crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787) on shores of differing wave exposure". Marine Biology 156 (12): 2591–2599. doi:10.1007/s00227-009-1283-1. 
  9. ^ Halil Şen (2007). "Food preference of Eledone moschata Lamarck, 1799 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in captive conditions" (PDF). International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences 1 (2): 29–31. 
  10. ^ Inês C. Silva, Natacha Mesquita, Christoph D. Schubart, Maria Judite Alves & José Paula (2009). "Genetic patchiness of the shore crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus along the Portuguese coast". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 378 (1–2): 50–57. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2009.07.032. 
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