Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Monoecious trees or shrubs. Branchlets cylindric or 4-angled, rarely flattened. Leaves opposite, 4-ranked; adult leaves scale-like, rhomboid. Male cones with 4-10 pairs of sporophylls; each with 3-10 pollen-sacs.  Female cones dry and woody, spherical or subspherical, usually with 3-6 pairs of peltate scales. Seeds lens-shaped or faceted, narrowly winged.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agaricus gennadii is associated with Cupressus

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera adusta is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Cupressus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Boletus moravicus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Cupressus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe obscurissima is associated with Cupressus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Chloroscypha seaveri is saprobic on dead needle of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed, up to 2mm diam. stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora pini is saprobic on dead bark of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Cupressus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena lactea is saprobic on dead debris of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella fimbriata is saprobic on dead, fallen, bleached or brown needle tip of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 2-8

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella pinophylla is saprobic on dead, fallen needle of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 2-7

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Microthyrium pinophyllum is saprobic on dead needle of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
in small groups, erumpent on thin stroma perithecium of Nectria pinea is saprobic on dead branch of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 9-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spinner
colonial Oligonychus ununguis spins live, yellowed foliage of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia auricolor is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / feeds on
Orsillus depressus feeds on Cupressus

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Orsodacne humeralis may be found on branch (recently cut) of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 3-6

Foodplant / parasite
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis funerea parasitises live needle of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 12-4

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis funerioides is saprobic on dead Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Pestalotiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pestalotiopsis monochaetioides is saprobic on dead needle of Cupressus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Phloeosinus thujae feeds within cambium of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia balsamea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Cupressus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudolasiobolus minutissimus is saprobic on dead, fallen bark of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pseudotomentella mucidula is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Cupressus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Ramaria decurrens is associated with Cupressus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Seiridium cardinale infects and damages cankered trunk of Cupressus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium leptosporum is saprobic on dead branch of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Stomiopeltis cupressicola is saprobic on dead needle of Cupressus
Remarks: season: 2-5

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Branching pattern enhances exchange and transport: cypress
 

Branches of cypress trees and other organisms enhance exchange of matter with the environment and internal transport by using fractal branching structures.

   
  "The natural plant with branched fractal structures possesses large specific surface area (for scrambling the space to enhance the exchange of matters with environments), and well connectivity (for prompting the transport of those inside the structures)." (Wang et al. 2005:488)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Wang, R.; Zhang, W.; Guo, J. 2005. A branched material based on biomimetic design: Synthesis and electrochemical properties. Materials Science and Engineering C. 25(4): 486-489.
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© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:81
Specimens with Sequences:127
Specimens with Barcodes:110
Species:16
Species With Barcodes:15
Public Records:55
Public Species:14
Public BINs:0
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Cupressus

The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group. Based on genetic and morphological analysis, the Cupressus genus is found in the Cupressoideae subfamily.[1][2] The common name comes from Old French cipres and that from Latin cyparissus, which is the latinisation of the Greek κυπάρισσος (kypárissos).[3]

As currently treated, these cypresses are native to scattered localities in mainly warm temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere, including western North America, Central America, northwest Africa, the Middle East, the Himalayas, southern China and northern Vietnam. As with other conifers, extensive cultivation has led to a wide variety of forms, sizes and colours, that are grown in parks and gardens throughout the world.[4] They are evergreen trees or large shrubs, growing to 5–40 m tall. The leaves are scale-like, 2–6 mm long, arranged in opposite decussate pairs, and persist for three to five years. On young plants up to two years old, the leaves are needle-like and 5–15 mm long. The cones are 8–40 mm long, globose or ovoid with four to 14 scales arranged in opposite decussate pairs; they are mature in 18–24 months from pollination. The seeds are small, 4–7 mm long, with two narrow wings, one along each side of the seed.

Many of the species are adapted to forest fires, holding their seeds for many years in closed cones until the parent trees are killed by a fire; the seeds are then released to colonise the bare, burnt ground. In other species, the cones open at maturity to release the seeds.

Many species are grown as decorative trees in parks and, in Asia, around temples; in some areas, the native distribution is hard to discern due to extensive cultivation. A few species are grown for their timber, which can be very durable. The fast-growing hybrid Leyland cypress, much used in gardens, draws one of its parents from this genus (Monterey cypress C. macrocarpa); the other parent, Nootka cypress, is also sometimes classified in this genus, or else in the separate genus Xanthocyparis, but in the past more usually in Chamaecyparis.

Species[edit]

The number of species recognised within this genus varies sharply, from 16 to 25 or more according to the authority followed, because most populations are small and isolated, and whether they should be accorded specific, subspecific or varietal rank is difficult to ascertain. Current tendencies are to reduce the number of recognised species; when a narrow species concept is adopted, the varieties indented in the list below may also be accepted as distinct species. See also the New World species (below) for a likely split in the genus in the future.

Old World species[edit]

The Old World cypresses tend to have cones with more scales (8–14 scales, rarely 6 in C. funebris), each scale with a short broad ridge, not a spike. C. sempervirens is the type species of the genus, defining the name Cupressus.

New World species[edit]

Cupressus lusitanica foliage and cones

The New World cypresses tend to have cones with fewer scales (4-8 scales, rarely more in C. macrocarpa), each scale with an often prominent narrow spike. Recent genetic evidence[5] shows they are less closely related to the Old World cypresses than previously thought, being more closely related to Xanthocyparis and Juniperus than to the rest of Cupressus. These species have very recently[6] been transferred to Callitropsis. New World species are found in marginal habitats with xeric soils, and therefore exhibit a fragmented allopatric pattern of distribution. This type of distribution results in disproportionate local abundance with most species restricted to small neighboring populations.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4.
  2. ^ Gadek, P. A., Alpers, D. L., Heslewood, M. M., & Quinn, C. J. (2000). Relationships within Cupressaceae sensu lato: a combined morphological and molecular approach. American Journal of Botany 87: 1044–1057)
  3. ^ κυπάρισσος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. ^ Eckenwalder, James E. (2009). Conifers of the world: the complete reference. United Kingdom: Timber Press. p. 720. ISBN 0881929743. 
  5. ^ Little, D. P., Schwarzbach, A. E., Adams, R. P. & Hsieh, Chang-Fu. 2004. The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of Callitropsis and the newly described genus Xanthocyparis (Cupressaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (11): 1872–1881. Abstract
  6. ^ a b Little, D. P. (2006). Evolution and circumscription of the true Cypresses. Syst. Bot. 31 (3): 461-480.

[1]

  1. ^ Platt, Karen "Gold Fever" describes golden or yellow-leaved cultivars of Cupressus http://www.karenplatt.co.uk
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