Overview

Distribution

Stenopus hispidus is cosmopolitan. It can be found in tropic waters throughout the Indo-Pacific Region from the Red Sea and southern Africa to the Hawaiian Tuamotu. It is also found in the western Atlantic, from Bermuda and off the coast of North Carolina to the Gulf of Mexico and southern Florida to the northern coast of South America.

Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: cosmopolitan

  • Zhang, D., L. Junda, L. Cresevell. August 1998. Mating behavior and spawning of the Banded coral shrimp *Stenopus hispidus* in the laboratory. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 18(3): 511-518.
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Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958).
  • Derijard, R. (1966). Note preliminaire sur les crustaces stomatopodes et decapodes recoltes a l'ile Europa du 6 au 24 Avril 1964. Mem Mus Natn Hist Nat, Paris 4 (41): 159-180
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Physical Description

Morphology

Animals in the family Stenopodidae have spines on their body and on the larger chelipeds. The antennae are larger than their body (Limbaugh et al., 1961). Stenopus hispidus grows up to 6.2 cm (Williams, 1984).

Stenopus hispidus has a red and white-banded body and claws, with the bands sometimes bordered in purple. Banded coral shrimp have two pairs of long, white, hair-like antennae, the first of the antennae being uniramous (Humann, 1992). The walking legs and some parts of the body appear translucent while the third, or middle, pair of legs is enlarged and supports large claws (Humann, 1992). The claws have the ability to automize, or break off by natural means, when the individual feels threatened. The claw can regenerate and often results in unequal claw size (Colin, 1978).

Range length: 6.2 (high) cm.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; heterothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: female larger

  • Humann, P. 1992. Reef Creature Identification. Jacksonville, FL: New World Publications, Inc.
  • Williams, A. 1984. Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institute Press.
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Ecology

Habitat

Stenopus hispidus can be found in a variety of reef habitats from coral ledges to rocky ledges and crevices, but are occasionally found in undercut mats of rhizomes of Thalassia or discarded man-made objects such as car tires and buckets (Colin, 1978; Limbaugh et al., 1961). They are found in 2 to 4 meters of water, usually beyond the turbulent zone, but have been observed as deep as 210 meters (Limbaugh et al., 1961; Williams, 1984).

Range depth: 2 to 210 m.

Average depth: 2-4 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; saltwater or marine

Aquatic Biomes: reef

  • Colin, P. 1978. Caribbean Reef Invertebrates and Plants. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications Inc. Ltd..
  • Limbaugh, C., H. Pederson, F. Chace Jr.. 1961. Shrimps that clean fishes. Bulletin of Marine Science Gulf and Caribbean, 11(2): 237-257.
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Depth range based on 125 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 97 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 290
  Temperature range (°C): 17.397 - 28.294
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 7.659
  Salinity (PPS): 34.112 - 37.173
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.417 - 4.923
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 0.593
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 3.885

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 290

Temperature range (°C): 17.397 - 28.294

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.033 - 7.659

Salinity (PPS): 34.112 - 37.173

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.417 - 4.923

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.019 - 0.593

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 3.885
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

S. hispidus consumes the parasites, injured tissue and undesirable food particles it “cleans” from cooperating coral reef fish species.

Animal Foods: aquatic or marine worms; aquatic crustaceans; other marine invertebrates; zooplankton

Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats non-insect arthropods, Eats other marine invertebrates)

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Associations

Stenopus hispidus is a “cleaning shrimp.” Individuals remove and consume parasites, injured tissue and rejected food particles from some coral reef organisms (Limbaugh et al., 1961). S. hispidus perches near the opening of the cave or ledge in which they are living and wave their antennae to attract fish (Humann, 1992). These locations sometimes become known as cleaning stations. Individuals have the freedom to enter the mouth and gill cavities of host organisms, without being eaten, but usually remain in contact with the substrate when cleaning. Species that S. hispidus has been known to clean include morays, tangs, grunts and groupers (Limbaugh et al., 1961).

Mutualist Species:

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There are no regular predators of Stenopus hispidus, but they do not entirely escape predation. Some complete individuals have been found in the stomach of some groupers such as Epinephelus merra.

Known Predators:

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Crustaceans have setae and sensilla found all over the body. Sensilla covering the body function as mechanoreceptors or chemoreceptors. Special chemoreceptors are on the antennae. Well developed receptors provide info about appendage position and movement. Crustaceans also have simple and compound eyes.

Communication Channels: tactile ; chemical

Other Communication Modes: pheromones

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; chemical

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Life Cycle

Nine larval stages have been described (Williams, 1984). After being laid, the eggs hatch 16 days later (at 28 deg C), and usually at night (Zhang et al., 1998; Debelius and Baensch, 1997). Teleplanic larvae may be able to delay metamorphosis until reaching suitable habitat (Williams, 1984). Depending on diet and temperature, adult banded coral shrimp molt every 3 to 8 weeks (Debelius and Baensch, 1997).

Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis

  • Debelius, H., H. Baensch. 1997. Baensch Marine Atlas, Vol 2. Morris Plans, NJ: Tetra Press.
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Reproduction

Males and females pair off to mate, possibly pairing off as juveniles and remaining together for years.

Mating System: monogamous

Mates may go through a courtship ritual when a male is equal or larger than a female (Williams, 1984). The female Stenopus hispidus mates with her paired male immediately after molting (Zhang et al., 1998). The eggs initially appear as a greenish mass and are placed on the swimmerets underneath the female’s abdomen. The eggs hatch 16 days later (at 28 deg C), and usually at night (Zhang et al., 1998; Debelius and Baensch, 1997).

Breeding season: Year Round

Key Reproductive Features: sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

The eggs are placed on the swimmerets underneath the female’s abdomen until hatching.

Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female)

  • Debelius, H., H. Baensch. 1997. Baensch Marine Atlas, Vol 2. Morris Plans, NJ: Tetra Press.
  • Limbaugh, C., H. Pederson, F. Chace Jr.. 1961. Shrimps that clean fishes. Bulletin of Marine Science Gulf and Caribbean, 11(2): 237-257.
  • Williams, A. 1984. Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institute Press.
  • Zhang, D., L. Junda, L. Cresevell. August 1998. Mating behavior and spawning of the Banded coral shrimp *Stenopus hispidus* in the laboratory. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 18(3): 511-518.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Stenopus hispidus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Stenopus hispidus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

S. hispidus is one of the first species to be imported for use in the tropical marine aquarium trade. It is sometimes difficult to raise because of its territorial temperament.

Positive Impacts: pet trade

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Wikipedia

Stenopus hispidus

Stenopus hispidus is a shrimp-like decapod crustacean belonging to the infraorder Stenopodidea. Common names include banded coral shrimp and banded cleaner shrimp.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Stenopus hispidus has a pan-tropical distribution,[3] extending into some temperate areas. It is found in the western Atlantic Ocean from Canada to Brazil,[4] including the Gulf of Mexico.[3] In Australia, it is found as far south as Sydney and it also occurs around New Zealand.[2]

Description[edit]

Stenopus hispidus reaches a total length of 60 millimetres (2.4 in),[2] and has striking colouration. The ground colour is transparent,[5] but the carapace, abdomen and the large third pereiopod are all banded red and white.[2] The antennae and other pereiopods are white.[2] The abdomen, carapace and third pereiopods are covered in spines.[5]

Ecology[edit]

Stenopus hispidus lives below the intertidal zone, at depth of up to 210 metres (690 ft),[2] on coral reefs.[5] It is a cleaner shrimp, and advertises to passing fish by slowly waving its long, white antennae.[5][6] S. hispidus uses its three pairs of claws to remove parasites, fungi and damaged tissue from the fish.[6] Stenopus hispidus is monogamous.[7]

Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles Fransen (2010). "Stenopus hispidus (Olivier, 1811)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Gary C. B. Poore & Shane T. Ahyong (2004). "Stenopodidea – coral shrimps and venus shrimps". Marine Decapod Crustacea of Southern Australia: a Guide to Identification. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 145–149. ISBN 978-0-643-06906-0. 
  3. ^ a b Darryl L. Felder, Fernando Álvarez, Joseph W. Goy & Rafael Lemaitre (2009). "Decapoda Crustacea of the Gulf of Mexico with Comments on the Amphionidacea". In Darryl L. Felder & David K. Camp. Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota: Biodiversity. Volume 1. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 1019–1104. ISBN 978-1-60344-094-3. 
  4. ^ "Stenopus hispidus (Olivier, 1811) banded coral shrimp". SeaLifeBase. March 23, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d Gilbert L. Voss. "The crustaceans". Seashore Life of Florida and the Caribbean. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 78–123. ISBN 978-0-486-42068-4. 
  6. ^ a b Brian Morton & John Edward Morton (1983). "The coral sub-littoral". The Sea Shore Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 253–300. ISBN 978-962-209-027-9. 
  7. ^ Conrad Limbaugh, Harry Pederson & Fenner A. Chace, Jr. (1961). "Shrimps that clean fishes". Bulletin of Marine Science 11 (2): 237–257. 
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