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Range DescriptionGallirallus calayanensis is endemic to Calayan island in the Babuyan islands, northern Philippines, where it was recorded and a specimen collected from Longog, Barangay Magsidel, in May 2004. It was found to be common within its preferred habitat (at an estimated density of one pair per 1-2 ha), and its population has been estimated at 100-200 pairs in the area surveyed. Follow-up surveys in 2005/2006 confirmed that the species is well distributed but localised across the island and recorded a total of 202 individuals from 471 playback stations (EspaÃ±ola and Oliveros 2006). Surveys conducted since 2005 had detected an apparent decline of 14% in detectability by 2008; however, further data are required in order to more robustly analyse the population trend (Oliveros and Layusa 2008). The range-wide surveys of 2005/2006 estimated a total area of occupancy of 36.4 km2 out of 73.6 km2 total area surveyed.