Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Bathyporeia spp. show two types of movement, swimming and burrowing, that may follow each other up in rapid succession. Often they seem to burrow with the dorsal side upwards. This may be associated with the breeding cycle. In deeper waters the spring rise in temperature initiates breeding, while in shallower waters it is induced by tidal phasing. Ovigerous females of B. elegans are found mainly from May to August (Watkin, 1939a, 1939b; Nicolaisen & Kanneworff, 1969; Finchham, 1971).

Bathyporeia shows a typical feeding position lying upside down in a small cavity in the sand, and may be considered a selective deposit feeder. It feeds by cleaning sand grains from adhering micro-organisms and detritus (Nicolaisen & Kanneworff, 1969).

  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Bathyporeia elegans is a small sand-hopper with a slender, elongate, laterally-compressed body that grows to up to 0.6 cm length and is devoid of colour. The head bears a pair of large, distinct, red-coloured eyes, two pairs of antennae and four pairs of mouthparts. The first pair of antennae have a large rectangular basal segment, bearing plumose chaetae on the ventral surface, and a number of smaller segments at right angles to each other. The antennae tip bears a flagellum, that is five to six segmented in females but nine to eleven segmented in males, and a smaller, two segmented accessory flagellum. The second pair of antennae are five-segmented, bearing an eight to ten segmented flagellum in females but a filiform flagellum in males. In females, this pair of antennae are twice as long than the first pair but in males, they extend the entire length of the body. The segments of the thorax each bear a pair of broad, densely haired pereopods, which are modified at the first segment into rounded chaetae-bearing coxal plates. The first two pairs of pereopods are modified into simple, sub-chelate gnathopods, whereas the third to seventh pairs bear a small terminal claw. The abdomen is covered by epimeral plates on the dorsal surface, the third of which is smoothly rounded, lacks a toothed corner and has three groups of ventral spines. The fourth plate is notched, bearing paired spines and bristles. The segments of the abdomen each bear a pair of two armed pleopods.
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Distribution

In the 1976-1986 period Bathyporeia elegans was only observed near the western coastal zone, the Flemish and the Zeeland Banks. In this period the species reaches a maximum density of 90 ind./m2. The distribution pattern is extended in the 1994-2001 period with different observations in the area of the Hinder Banks. Maximum densities amounted to 2,500 ind./m2.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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common or abundant
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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B. elegans is one of the most common macrobenthic species on the Dutch Continental Shelf and the most abundant species of the genus Bathyporeia. It is not present in the deeper central Oyster Ground and the Wadden Sea.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Amphipod with laterally flattened body, rather slender and elongate. Up to 6 mm long. Head without rostrum but with clearly discernible eyes. The upper antennae seem to be standing on an outgrowth of the head. Usually not pigmented.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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Morphology

B. elegans has a length of up to 6 mm. Its body is laterally compressed, rather slender and elongate. The head has no rostrum and the eyes are distinct. The body is devoid of pigment. The telson is completely split (Lincoln, 1979; Hayward & Ryland, 1990). Species of the genus Bathyporeia are remarkably similar in general rnorphology. They mostly differ in the number or size of little spines that are present at the plates covering their bodies.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Bathyporeia elegans is mainly found in medium to coarse-grained sediments (median grain size > 150 µm) with a low mud content (chiefly < 20%). The optimal sediment type has a median grain size of 200 to 350 µm (relative occurrence: > 30%) and a mud content of maximum 10% (relative occurrence: > 20%).
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
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B. elegans species prefers fine sand with a low content of mud.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
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Depth range based on 1535 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 909 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 150
  Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 10.845
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.055 - 12.040
  Salinity (PPS): 32.851 - 35.264
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.996 - 6.605
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 0.821
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 7.673

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 150

Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 10.845

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.055 - 12.040

Salinity (PPS): 32.851 - 35.264

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.996 - 6.605

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.353 - 0.821

Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 7.673
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Bathyporeia elegans inhabits fine and muddy sand from low water to depths of 40 m.
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Wikipedia

Bathyporeia elegans

Bathyporeia elegans is a species of amphipod crustacean in the genus Bathyporeia. It is unpigmented, and grows up to 6 millimetres (0.24 in) long.[1]

References

  1. ^ Mark Costello & Denise Bellan-Santini (2011). "Bathyporeia elegans Watkin, 1938". In J. Lowry. World Amphipoda database. World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103058. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
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