Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 An intertidal barnacle with six solid wall plates, an oval-shaped operculum opening, and a membranous base. Juveniles have a kite-shaped opercular opening. The rostral plate is relatively narrow, plates are of roughly equal size, and its rostral plate is not fused with the rostrolateral plates. Usually conical in shape, however when crowded may become tubular. It may reach a diameter of approximately 14 mm, depending on habitat, food availability and level on the shore. The tissue inside the opercular aperture is bright blue with black and orange markings.Before 1976 Chthamalus montagui was considered a variety of Chthamalus stellatus, but in 1976 was identified as a distinct species, due to differences in its vertical zonation on the shore and morphology, particularly in the shape of the opercular plates, setation of the smaller cirri. (Southward, 1976).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 74 specimens in 4 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 15 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3.5
  Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 5.063
  Salinity (PPS): 35.203 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.138 - 6.200
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.421
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 2.578

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3.5

Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 5.063

Salinity (PPS): 35.203 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.138 - 6.200

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.421

Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 2.578
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Recorded in the mid to low eulittoral zone on exposed rocky shores. Its vertical distribution overlaps with Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides.
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Associations

Animal / parasite / ectoparasite
adult of Hemioniscus balani ectoparasitises mantle cavity of Chthamalus stellatus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chthamalus stellatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ST---AT-S-C-I---------------------------CATAAAGATATTGGAACTTTATATTTAATTTTTGGGGCATGATCTGCAATAGTGGGAACTGCTCTT---AGTTTACTGATTCGAGCTGAATTAGGACAACCTGGTAGATTAATCGGGGAT---GATCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTAACGGCTCACGCTTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATGGTTATACCTATTATGATTGGAGGATTTGGTAATTGATTATTACCTTTGATA---TTGGGAGCTCCTGACATAGCATTTCCTCGTTTAAATAACATAAGTTTTTGACTTCTTCCTCCTGCTTTAATACTTTTAATTAGAGGTTCACTTGTTGAAGCTGGGGCAGGGACTGGGTGAACAGTCTATCCCCCTTTGTCAAGAAATATTGCTCATTCTGGAGCTTCTGTAGATTTATCT---ATTTTTTCTTTACATCTAGCTGGTGCTTCTTCTATTTTGGGGGCAATTAATTTTATATCTACAGTAATTAATATACGAGCTGAAACTTTGACTTTTGATCGTATTCCTTTATTTGTATGAAGAGTATTTGTTACAGTAATTTTACTTCTTCTTTCTTTACCGGTGTTAGCCGGA---GCAATTACAATATTACTGACGGATCGAAATTTAAATACTTCCTTTTTTGATCCAACAGGAGGGGGTGATCCAATTCTTTATCAACATTTATTTTGA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chthamalus stellatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Chthamalus stellatus

Chthamalus stellatus, common name Poli's stellate barnacle, is a species of acorn barnacle common on rocky shores in South West England, Ireland, and Southern Europe.[1][2] It is named after Giuseppe Saverio Poli.[3]

Description[edit]

C. stellatus is a sessile barnacle that attaches to rocks and other firm materials in the intertidal zone using its membranous base. It is basically cone-shaped but can assume a more tubular shape in a crowded colony. Like other sessile barnacles, as an adult C. stellatus is a suspension feeder that stays in its fixed shell and uses its feathery, rhythmically beating appendages – actually modified legs – to draw plankton and detritus into its shell for consumption.[4]

The chalky white shell of C. stellatus has a kite-shaped opercular opening when it is a juvenile and an oval operculum opening when it is an adult. The shell is made up of six solid wall plates of approximately equal size. Its relatively narrow rostral plates remain separate from its rostrolateral plates and do not fuse. C. stellatus has bright blue tissue with black and orange markings which can be seen when its opercular aperture is not tightly closed. Depending upon environmental conditions and the amount of food available, it can reach up to 14 millimetres (0.55 in) in diameter.[4]

Reproduction[edit]

Like most barnacles, C. stellatus is hermaphroditic and capable of self-fertilisation when isolated, but individuals typically take on either a male or female role in order to mate. Their penises are significantly longer than their bodies and are used by the stationary "functional males" to search the area for an equally stationary "functional female" neighbour to fertilise.[5]

Barnacles of this species produce about 1,000 to 4,000 eggs per brood when functioning as female.[5] The fertilised eggs remain inside the shell of the adult until they are released as nauplii, free swimming larvae which float on currents along with other plankton. After several moults they metamorphose into a cyprid, a stage at which they cannot feed. The cyprid swims in search of a suitable surface on which to attach itself, head first, in order to metamorphose into the familiar, hard-shelled, immobile form.[4][6] The duration of its breeding season can be temperature dependent, and it produces fewer broods near the northern limit of its range.[7]

Habitat and range[edit]

C. stellatus attaches to exposed rocky shores in the mid to low eulittoral zone in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. It especially favours islands and headlands as opposed to bays and more protected areas.[8] It is a southern, warm-water species but has been discovered as far north as Shetland and as far east as the Isle of Wight.[4]

The vertical distribution of C. stellatus overlaps with Chthamalus montagui (considered the same species as C. stellatus until 1976)[5] and Semibalanus balanoides with the specific prevalence of one species over another in a given locale possibly related to differences in the distribution of the species' larval stages.[1][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b P. M. Ross, M. T. Burrows, S. J. Hawkins, A. J. Southward and K. P. Ryan (2003). "A key for the identification of the nauplii of common barnacles of the British Isles, with emphasis on Chthamalus". Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (2): 328–340. doi:10.1651/0278-0372(2003)023[0328:AKFTIO]2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ J. Davenport & S. Irwin (2003). "Hypoxic life of intertidal acorn barnacles". Marine Biology 143 (3): 555–563. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1057-0. 
  3. ^ "Chthamalus stellatus". Environmental database on the Lagoon of Venice. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d Karen Riley (2002). "Chthamalus stellatus (Poli's stellate barnacle)". Marine Life Information Network. 
  5. ^ a b c Karen Riley (2002). "Chthamalus stellatus (Poli's stellate barnacle) — reproduction and longevity". Marine Life Information Network. 
  6. ^ "Barnacles". PZNOW. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  7. ^ "The influence of climate on intertidal reef biotopes". UK Marine SACs project. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  8. ^ a b M. T. Burrows, S. J. Hawkins and A. J. Southward (1999). "Larval development of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus and Chthamalus montagui". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 79 (1): 93–101. doi:10.1017/S0025315498000101. 
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