Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

A calanid copepod of the genus Calanus. In the North Atlantic, C. finmarchicus can be confused with congeners C. helgolandicus and C. glacialis which both overlap in size and range with C. finmarchicus. It has also been mistaken for C. marshallae which resides in the northern Pacific Ocean. C. finmarchicus does not occur in the Pacific Ocean. To date, C. finmarchicus specimens found in the Pacific have been incorrectly identified C. marshallae. Another species of Calanus overlapping in range with C. finmarchicus is C. hyperboreus, a significantly larger species.

Adult C. finmarchicus can be distinguished from C. helgolandicus, chiefly by:

  1. the less elongated outer ramus of the left last leg in the male.
  2. the female 5th leg basipod of C. helgolandicus has a curved interior margin.
  3. the more evenly rounded frontal part of the female head.
  4. the longer caudal rami.
  5. larger size than C. helgolandicus (female prosome 1.98-2.80mm, Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
  6. the pore signature pattern of integumental organs as described by Fleminger and Hulsemann (1977).
  7. the geographical range of C. helgolandicus is centered in the eastern N. Atlantic and warmer waters of the western N. Atlantic

Adult Calanus finmarchicus can be distinguished from C. glacialis, and C. marshallae by:

  1. the less elongated outer ramus of the left 5th leg in the male.
  2. the female head shape
  3. the female 5th leg basipod of C. glacialis has a curved interior margin
  4. smaller size than C. glacialis (prosome 3.36-4.08 mm, Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
  5. shape of posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
  6. shape of ventral surface of genital segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
  7. the pore signature pattern of integumental organs as described by Fleminger and Hulsemann (1977).
  8. the photoreceptor of C. marshallae is very large (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
  9. the geographical range of C. glacialis is more northerly than finmarchicus in the western N. Atlantic and also occurs in the polar waters of the N. Pacific. C. marshallae has been identified only in the N. Pacific
  10. smaller length than C. glacialis (female prosome: 3.36-4.0, Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

Adult Calanus finmarchicus can be distinguished from C. hyperboreus by:

  1. the fifth posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment has pointed tips on male, female, C5 and C4
  2. smaller length than C. hyperboreus. Female prosome: 5.9-7.4 (Hirche, 1997), total length: 7-10mm (Wilson, 1932), male: total length: 6-7mm (Wilson, 1932)
  • Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (2002 onwards). Calanoida: families. Version 1: 2 October 2002. crustacea.net
  • Bradford, J.M., Review of the taxonomy of the Calanidae (Copepoda) and the limits to the genus Calanus. Hydrobiologia, 1988. 167-168: p. 73-81.
  • Fleminger, A. and K. Hulsemann, Geographical range and taxonomic divergence in North Atlantic Calanus (C. helgolandicus, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis). Marine Biology,
  • Frost, B., Taxonomic status of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis (Copepoda), with special reference to adult males. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 1971. 28(1): p. 23-30.
  • Sars, G. O. (1903). Copepoda. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol 4. Copepoda. , Bergen Museum (pub.): 171 pp., 107 plates.
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Distribution

C. helgolandicus, a congener species of C. finmarchicus, might have a more southern distribution.
  • van Breemen, P.J. (1906). Mariene copepoden [Marine copepods]. Fauna van Nederland, 1. E.J. Brill: Leiden, The Netherlands. 31 pp.
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Arctic to West Indies
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Boreal North Atlantic species. Mass presence in the Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea and the western part of the Arctic Basin, abundant in the North Sea, Davis Strait. This species in not assumed to reproduce in Arctic waters.

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Sub-arctic and temperate regions of North Atlantic Ocean.
 
Depth distribution: epipelagic (0-500 m), or mesopelagic (500-1000 m).
  • Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (2002 onwards). Calanoida: families. Version 1: 2 October 2002. crustacea.net
  • Bradford, J.M., Review of the taxonomy of the Calanidae (Copepoda) and the limits to the genus Calanus. Hydrobiologia, 1988. 167-168: p. 73-81.
  • Fleminger, A. and K. Hulsemann, Geographical range and taxonomic divergence in North Atlantic Calanus (C. helgolandicus, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis). Marine Biology,
  • Frost, B., Taxonomic status of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis (Copepoda), with special reference to adult males. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 1971. 28(1): p. 23-30.
  • Sars, G. O. (1903). Copepoda. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol 4. Copepoda. , Bergen Museum (pub.): 171 pp., 107 plates.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Female:
The ventral surface of the genital segment from lateral view forms a straight line posteriad of the genital pore. The genital structures are very similar to that of C. glacialis and C. marshallae. The genital plate is smoothly curved in its posterior part and cut-off in the anterior, covering the proximal part of the chitinized seminal receptacles, which are slightly tilted toward the long axis of the body. The posterior corners of the last thoracic segment are always rounded. The serrated line on the coxopodite of C5 carries from 24 to 41 serrations, 34.71 on average. The serrations are dull and very densely spaced. This line is less curved in C. finmarchicus than in C. glacialis. The medial line of the 2nd segment of the basipodite of P5 is more curved than in other species. The spiniform process on the distal front edge of the P5 basipodite is always thin and sharp. The distal corner of the 1st segment of the endopodite narrows smoothly, while in C. glacialis this corner is thicker and more dull. The inner edge of the 1st endopodal segment of P1 carries 1 seta, the inner and outer edges of the 3rd endopodal segment of P5 carry 3 setae. The photoreceptory glands are placed near the lateral gland.

Male:
The P5 has an almost equal number of setae on the right and left branch. The outer distal process on the 2nd endopodal segment of the left P5 reaches to or beyond the distal edge of the 1st exopodal segment of this leg.

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Size

                                                           
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female 
Min length: 1.86 mm
Max length: 3.28 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: male 
Length: 1.97 mm
Min length: 2.08 mm
Max length: 3.16 mm
Size type: Total length     Stage: female 
Min length: 2.42 mm
Max length: 4.21 mm
Size type: Total length     Stage: male 
Min length: 2.57 mm
Max length: 3.98 mm
  • Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (2002 onwards). Calanoida: families. Version 1: 2 October 2002. crustacea.net
  • Bradford, J.M., Review of the taxonomy of the Calanidae (Copepoda) and the limits to the genus Calanus. Hydrobiologia, 1988. 167-168: p. 73-81.
  • Fleminger, A. and K. Hulsemann, Geographical range and taxonomic divergence in North Atlantic Calanus (C. helgolandicus, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis). Marine Biology,
  • Frost, B., Taxonomic status of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis (Copepoda), with special reference to adult males. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 1971. 28(1): p. 23-30.
  • Sars, G. O. (1903). Copepoda. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol 4. Copepoda. , Bergen Museum (pub.): 171 pp., 107 plates.
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Ecology

Habitat

upper and glacial epipelagic regions of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 26866 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 24692 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4023
  Temperature range (°C): -1.870 - 21.878
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 44.900
  Salinity (PPS): 18.418 - 36.042
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.611 - 9.192
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.258
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 180.924

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4023

Temperature range (°C): -1.870 - 21.878

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.000 - 44.900

Salinity (PPS): 18.418 - 36.042

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.611 - 9.192

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.258

Silicate (umol/l): 0.791 - 180.924
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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General Ecology

Ecology

Filter-feeders, feed on various components of the phytoplankton, primarily diatoms

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Ecology

Copepodite stage 5 enters diapause for the fall and early winter, remaining at depth until ready to molt into adult forms and begin reproduction.
  • Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (2002 onwards). Calanoida: families. Version 1: 2 October 2002. crustacea.net
  • Bradford, J.M., Review of the taxonomy of the Calanidae (Copepoda) and the limits to the genus Calanus. Hydrobiologia, 1988. 167-168: p. 73-81.
  • Fleminger, A. and K. Hulsemann, Geographical range and taxonomic divergence in North Atlantic Calanus (C. helgolandicus, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis). Marine Biology,
  • Frost, B., Taxonomic status of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis (Copepoda), with special reference to adult males. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 1971. 28(1): p. 23-30.
  • Sars, G. O. (1903). Copepoda. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol 4. Copepoda. , Bergen Museum (pub.): 171 pp., 107 plates.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Near England goes through 2 generations a year, in the Barents sea – 1. General pattern for life cycle is as follows:
Forms an overwintering stock from mainly C5 copepodites, which sinks to the deeper layers and falls into diapause. By the end of march the copepodites rise into the surface layers, where reproduction takes place. The new generation reaches C3-C4 by June-July. With the surface water temperature increasing by July-August, they sink below to the deeper layers.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Accession numbers:
AF332767
AF367714
  • Bradford-Grieve, J.M. (2002 onwards). Calanoida: families. Version 1: 2 October 2002. crustacea.net
  • Bradford, J.M., Review of the taxonomy of the Calanidae (Copepoda) and the limits to the genus Calanus. Hydrobiologia, 1988. 167-168: p. 73-81.
  • Fleminger, A. and K. Hulsemann, Geographical range and taxonomic divergence in North Atlantic Calanus (C. helgolandicus, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis). Marine Biology,
  • Frost, B., Taxonomic status of Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis (Copepoda), with special reference to adult males. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 1971. 28(1): p. 23-30.
  • Sars, G. O. (1903). Copepoda. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol 4. Copepoda. , Bergen Museum (pub.): 171 pp., 107 plates.
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Calanus finmarchicus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TGATTAGTCCCCCTAATACTTGGTGCTGCAGATATAGCTTTCCCGCGCATAAACAACATAAGATTCTGGTTCTTGATGCCAGCTTTAATTATACTACTATCTACATCCCTAGTAGAGAGGGGGGCAGGAACAGGTTGAACGGTTTACCCTCCCCTCTCAAGTAATATTGCACATGCTGGGGCTTCCGTCGACTTCGCTATTTTTTCACTCCACTTGGCAGGGGTCAGATCAATTTTAGGGGCTGTTAATTTTATTACAACTTTGGGGAATCTCCGAGTATTTGGAATGATATTGGACCGTATGCCCCTATTTGCCTGAGCCGTTTTCATCACTGCTGTCCTCCTTTTACTGTCTTTACCGGTCTTAGCGGGGGCTATCACGATACTATTAACAGATCGGAACCTAAATACGACATTTTATGATGTTGGGGGGGGGGGAGATCCTATTTTATACCAGCACCTCTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calanus finmarchicus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

In the North Atlantic is a main food source for herring and other harvestable fish

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Wikipedia

Calanus finmarchicus

C. finmarchicus is a zooplankton species, which is found in enormous amounts in the northern Atlantic Ocean.

Distribution and ecology[edit]

C. finmarchicus is most commonly found in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. It is also found throughout the colder waters of the North Atlantic, especially off the coast of Canada, in the Gulf of Maine, and all the way up to western and northern Svalbard.

Calanus finmarchicus is one of the most commonly found species of zooplankton in the subarctic waters of the North Atlantic. Sometimes confused with C. helgolandicus and C. glacialis, C. finmarchicus is a large planktonic copepod whose chief diet includes diatoms, dinoflagellates, and other microplanktonic organisms. In fact, some studies have shown that heterotrophic microplankton provide a "prey resource sufficient for net lipid synthesis as well as egg production".[1] C. finmarchicus is a key component in the food web of the North Atlantic, providing sustenance for a variety of marine organisms including fish, shrimp, and whales.

Although the organism prefers these types of habitats, it has demonstrated that it is capable of surviving a wide range of environmental conditions. In terms of depth, C. finmarchicus can be found living anywhere from the ocean surface down to about 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) deep. It can also live in waters as cold as −2 °C (28 °F) and as warm as 22 °C (72 °F). Other environmental conditions and their ranges include salinity (18–36 pps), oxygen (1–9 mL/L), nitrate (0–45 μmol/L), phosphate (0–3 μmol/L) and silicate (1–181 μmol/L) levels.[2]

C. finmarchicus primarily feeds on different forms of phytoplankton. This includes diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates, and other photosynthetic marine organisms. Some scientific evidence suggests that copepods like C. finmarchicus are feeding on microzooplankton as well.[3]

Mesozooplankton are among the most important components of their regional food web. Several species of harvestable fish, including cod, herring and red fish (along with a plethora of other marine life) depend on C. finmarchicus for some form of nourishment. Scientists working in Canada estimate that 90%–100% of larval redfish prey on Calanus eggs in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence.[1]

C. finmarchicus is especially important ecologically because it shows rapid responses to climate variability, including shifts in species' distribution and abundance, timing of life history events, and trophic relationships.[4]

Physiology[edit]

C. finmarchicus is considered to be a large copepod, being typically 2–4 millimetres (0.08–0.16 in) long.[2] Copepods like C. finmarchicus represent a major part of dry weight (biomass) mesozooplankton in pelagic ecosystems.[5]

C. finmarchicus is high in protein and contains valuable omega-3 fatty acids. It contains also high amounts of antioxidant.

C. finmarchicus has survived intense periods of climate change. During the last ice age (approx. 18,000 years ago), the species migrated north in order to maintain its large populations.[6] The organism's overwintering strategy gives it the ability to survive during long periods of food shortage, typical of temperate and high latitudes.[7] During this six-month period of hibernation, many of these organisms will sink to depths from 500-2,500m in the ocean. They tend to remain at rest until the following spring when they awake and return to the surface waters.[8] Many scientists believe that C. finmarchicus use this strategy as a survival method by reducing physiological costs and predation risk.[9] This ability leads scientists to believe that they may be able to track some of the current changes in climate using the habits of these planktonic organisms.

The overwintering strategy employed by C. finmarchicus helps it survive intense starving periods and plays a significant role in the organism’s life cycle. During these starving periods C. finmarchicus has shown that it is able to maintain a consistent rate of egg production as well as a constant proportion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to carbon; granted their absolute amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and ATP vary significantly.[10] Scientists look at these levels of ATP because they usually remain constant over a range of physiological conditions, making them useful indicators of biomass.[10] Both egg production and ATP composition were previously thought to have varied directly with food availability on a linear scale. More recently, it has been shown that despite low concentrations of phytoplankton (one of the organism's primary food sources), C. finmarchicus maintained relatively high rates of egg production. In fact, these rates were strikingly similar to the egg production rates of those recorded in the lower St. Lawrence estuary, where the water had a much higher concentration of chlorophyll (indicating a larger presence of phytoplankton).[1]

Adults reproduce almost exclusively in surface waters.[9] Calanus eggs are typically 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) in diameter, and hatch in 2–3 days.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mark D. Ohman and Jeffrey A. Runge (1994). "Sustained fecundity when phytoplankton resources are in short supply: omnivory by Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of St. Lawrence" (PDF). Limonology and Oceanography 39 (1): 21–36. 
  2. ^ a b "Calanus finmarchicus". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 
  3. ^ Jens C. Nejstgaard, Ingrid Gismervik & Paul T. Solberg (1997). "Feeding and reproduction by Calanus finmarchicus, and microzooplankton grazing during mesocosm blooms of diatoms and the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series 147: 197–217. doi:10.3354/meps147197. 
  4. ^ Petra H. Lenz, R. Patrick Hassett, Christine M. Smith, Ann Bucklin, Andrew E. Christie & David W. Towle (2012). "Functional genomics resources for the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus: EST database and physiological microarray". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics 7 (in press): 110–23. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2011.12.001. PMID 22277925. 
  5. ^ Pierre Helaouët, Gregory Beaugrand & Philip Chris Reid (2011). "Macrophysiology of Calanus finmarchicus in the North Atlantic Ocean". Progress in Oceanography 91 (3): 217–228. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2010.11.003. 
  6. ^ "Fish food: Calanus finmarchicus survived global warming in the past". Science 2.0. September 23, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 
  7. ^ H.-J. Hirche (1996). "Diapause in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus – a review". Ophelia 44 (1-3): 129–143. 
  8. ^ Zooplankton and Climate Change - The Calanus Story. Fisheries Research Services. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Uploads/Documents/ME02Zooplankton.pdf
  9. ^ a b Alasdair Hind & William Gurney (2000). "Overwintering strategies in Calanus finmarchicus" (PDF). Marine Ecology Progress Series 193: 95–107. 
  10. ^ a b Norval Balch (1972). "ATP content in Calanus finmarchicus" (PDF). Limnology and Oceanography 17 (6): 906–908. 
  11. ^ "Zooplankton and Climate Change – The Calanus Story" (PDF). Fisheries Research Services. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 
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