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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

A calanid copepod of the genus Calanus. In the North Atlantic, C. glacialis can be confused with congeners C. finmarchicus in the N. Atlantic and C. marshallae in the N. Pacific which both overlap in size and range with C. glacialis. Other species of Calanus overlapping in range with C. glacialis are C. hyperboreus, a significantly larger species and C. helgolandicus, a significantly smaller species.

Adult Calanus glacialis can be distinguished from:

C. finmarchicus by:

1. the more elongated outer ramus of the left 5th leg in the male.

2. the female head shape

3. the female 5th leg basipod of C. glacialis has a curved interior margin; C. finmarchicus' is straight.

4. larger size than C. finmarchicus (female prosome 1.86 mm (Murphy & Cohen, 1978) - 3.28 mm (Frost, 1974); male prosome, 2.08 mm - 3.16 mm (Frost, 1974))

5. shape of posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

6. shape of ventral surface of genital segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

7. the pore signature pattern of integumental organs as described by Fleminger and Hulsemann (1977).

8. the geographical range of C. glacialis is more northerly than C.finmarchicus in the western N. Atlantic and also occurs in the polar waters of the N. Pacific where C.finmarchicus is absent.

C. marshallae by:

1. the photoreceptor of C. marshallae is very large (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977; Frost, 1974)

2. on average, C. glacialis is larger than C. marshallae (female prosome 2.7-4.2, Frost, 1974) although their sizes overlap.

3. the female 5th leg basipod of C. marshallae has a slightly more curved interior margin and fewer denticles, on average (Frost, 1974).

4. shape of ventral surface of genital segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

5. the caudal ramus of C. marshallae is about twice as long as wide but less than the width of the anal segment whereas in C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus, the length is usually more than twice the width and about equal to the width of the anal segment. (Frost, 1974)

6. geographic distribution: C. marshallae has been identified only in the N. Pacific.

C. helgolandicus by:

1. the more evenly rounded frontal part of the female head; C. helgolandicus is more pointed.

2. the longer caudal rami.

3. larger size than C. helgolandicus (female prosome 1.98-2.80mm, Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

4. the geographical range of C. helgolandicus is centered in the eastern N. Atlantic and warmer waters of the western N. Atlantic while C. glacialis is primarily an Arctic species found in both the N. Atlantic and N. Pacific.

C. hyperboreus by:

1. the fifth posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment has pointed tips on C. hyperboreus male, female, C5 and C4.

2. smaller length than C. hyperboreus. Female C. hyperboreus prosome: 5.9-7.4 (Hirche, 1997), total length: 7-10mm (Wilson, 1932), male: total length: 6-7mm (Wilson, 1932)

 

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Biology

One of most abundant surface copepods of the Arctic
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Body almost completely transparent, red color may be prominent on antennae, mouth parts, and parts of the urosome (the tail); Lipid sac prominent, and upto 40% of body volume; Urosome (tail) typical length (~ 25% of prosome); Antennae equal to or longer than total length; Mouth parts and antennae typical of filter feeder
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Distribution

Southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: Eastern Bradelle Valley); lower North Shore
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Typically Arctic species, extending its range from the Arctic Basin into adjoining seas. Is more numerous in the North Pacific than in the North Atlantic. Does not extend farther south than the south coast of Greenland.

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NW Atlantic, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Central Arctic Ocean; NW Pacific, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, 40N to 90N (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977, Frost, 1970)
 
Depth distribution: epipelagic (0-500 m), or mesopelagic (500-1000 m).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Female:
The ventral surface of the genital segment from lateral view curves immediately posteriad of the genital pore. The genital structures are very similar to that of C. finmarchicus and C. marshallae. The genital plate is smoothly curved in its posterior part and cut-off in the anterior, covering the proximal part of the chitinized seminal receptacles, which are slightly tilted toward the long axis of the body. The posterior corners of the last thoracic segment are always rounded. The serrated line on the coxopodite of C5 is very dense and more curved than in C. finmarchicus. The medial line of the 2nd segment of the basipodite of P5 is less curved than in C. finmarchicus. The spiniform process on the distal front edge of the P5 basipodite is usually wide and obtuse. The distal corner of the 1st segment of the endopodite is thicker and more dull than in M. finmarchicus. The inner edge of the 1st endopodal segment of P1 carries 1 seta, the inner and outer edges of the 3rd endopodal segment of P5 carry 3 setae. The photoreceptory glands are placed away from the lateral gland.

Male:
The P5 has an almost equal number of setae on the right and left branch. The outer distal process on the 2nd endopodal segment of the left P5 does not usually reach the distal edge of the 1st exopodal segment of this leg.

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Size

                                                                                                                                             
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female 
Length: 3.8 mm
Min length: 3.36 mm
Max length: 4.08 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female (Gulf of Maine) 
Length: 3.47 mm
Min length: 3.04 mm
Max length: 3.78 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female (Greenland Sea) 
Length: 3.55 mm
Min length: 2.89 mm
Max length: 4.25 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female (Barents Sea) 
Length: 3.61 mm
Min length: 2.87 mm
Max length: 4.13 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female (Central Arctic Ocean) 
Min length: 2.98 mm
Max length: 4.34 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: female 
Min length: 2.77 mm
Max length: 4.34 mm
Size type: Total length     Stage: female 
Min length: 3.6 mm
Max length: 5.46 mm
Size type: Prosome length     Stage: male 
Min length: 2.98 mm
Max length: 4.18 mm
Size type: Total length     Stage: male 
Min length: 3.9 mm
Max length: 5.36 mm
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Ecology

Habitat

Glacial of the epipelagic Region
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 7561 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3785 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1800
  Temperature range (°C): -1.883 - 7.017
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 28.789
  Salinity (PPS): 19.323 - 34.994
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.671 - 9.323
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 2.343
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.048 - 52.958

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1800

Temperature range (°C): -1.883 - 7.017

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 28.789

Salinity (PPS): 19.323 - 34.994

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.671 - 9.323

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.048 - 2.343

Silicate (umol/l): 2.048 - 52.958
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Endemic to arctic waters; Most abundant on shelf areas deeper than 50 m, commonly advected off shelves into deep basins; Concentrated in surface waters during late spring to early fall, found between 200-500 m during winter
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Trophic Strategy

Filter-feeders, feed on various components of the phytoplankton, primarily diatoms

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Suspension "filter" feeder on phytoplankton and protists; Large lipids deposits accumulated for over wintering stages; Thought to be one of the arctic's key grazers
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General Ecology

Ecology

Cold-water species (ranges in waters from -1.8*C to 8-10*C). Maximum abundance is observed in waters of temperatures -1.8 - +1*C

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Reproduction occurs in surface waters, as well as the early development of nauplii and early copepodites. Starting with C4-C5 start performing diel vertical migrations and seasonal ontogenetic migrations. Overwinter at depth in a state of diapause, are almost absent from the surface layers in the winter months.

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Females beginning spawn in spring based on lipid reserves from previous year, with continued reproduction dependent on food availability through the summer; Clutch size dependent on size of female with maximums in excess of 100 eggs and typically 40-80 eggs; Nauplii complete development over spring/summer; Late copepodites (CIII-CVI) overwinter at depth in 'diapause' (a form of hibernation); Generation length estimated at 2 years; Life expectancy 2-3 years, with potential for females to spawn in sequential years
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Accession numbers:
EU302905
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Calanus glacialis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTGAGTATGATTATTCGACTAGAGCTGGGCCAAGCAGGCTCACTTATTGGAGAT---GATCAGATCTATAACGTAGTGGTAACAGCCCACGCGTTTATCATAATCTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCATCTTAATTGGCGGGTTTGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCTTTAATG---TTGGGTGCGGCGGACATGGCTTTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATGAGCTTCTGATTTCTTATGCCAGCACTAATCATGCTCCTATCAAGATCCTTAGTGGAGAGGGGCGCAGGAACGGGTTGAACTGTTTATCCTCCCCTATCAAGTAATATTGCACATGCGGGGGCTTCTGTGGATTTT---GCTATCTTCTCCCTGCACTTAGCCGGAGTTAGCTCGATCTTGGGTGCTGTAAATTTTATTAGTACTTTGGGGAACCTTCGTGTGTTTGGTATACTTTTAGACCGTATGCCACTATTTGCTTGGGCGGTACTCATTACCGCTGTCCTTCTCCTATTATCATTACCCGTCCTAGCAGGG---GCTATCACCATATTATTAACAGATCGAAACCTAAATACGACCTTCTATGAC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GTGGGGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calanus glacialis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 52
Specimens with Barcodes: 52
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Significant food source for polar cod and in for herring in Pacific waters.

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