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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits open water but often seen swimming near outer reef walls or deep clear-water slopes (Ref. 48637). Found mostly in shallow reef waters where it forms large schools. Feeds on crustaceans and fishes, particularly clupeoids (Sardinella and Thrissocles), but also other fishes such as Sphyraena and Balistes. Marketed canned and frozen (Ref. 9684). Its flesh is mild and pleasantly flavored, but brushed with lemon juice prior to cooking to remove the ammonia-like smell (Ref. 9684).
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Distribution

Range Description

This Indo-West Pacific species is found from the Red Sea eastward to the Andaman Sea and from the Ryukyu Islands to the northern coasts of Australia, including the Marshall Islands and Fiji. However, it is not clear if the distribution is continuous around Indian subcontinent (Silas 1963). There are two specimens from Orchid Island, Taiwan taken at 200 m (Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute Catalogue number FRIP22383).
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Indian Ocean: Red Sea eastward to the Andaman Sea. Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands to the northern coasts of Australia, including the Marshall Islands and Fiji. Often confused in the literature with Grammatorcynus bicarinatus.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden east to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Samoa, south to Scott Reef (Western Australia) and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 14; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 14
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Size

Maximum size: 1000 mm FL
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Max. size

100.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9684)); max. published weight: 3,500 g (Ref. 168)
  • Collette, B.B. 2001 Scombridae. Tunas (also, albacore, bonitos, mackerels, seerfishes, and wahoo). p. 3721-3756. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9684)
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
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Diagnostic Description

Mouth relatively small, upper jaw reaching about to middle of eye. Pectoral fins stout. Interpelvic process short and single. No prominent anterior corselet present. Swim bladder present. Vertebrae 14 precaudal plus 17 caudal, total 31 as in mackerel (Scomber and Rastrelliger).Description: Characterized further by metallic blue-green, shading to silvery below; three keels on caudal peduncle and fin base, middle one largest; most of head and body covered with small scales; two lateral lines, second branching from first below third dorsal spine, passing ventrally along body, rejoining first below last dorsal finlet; large eye, 7-9% of fork length; maxilla reaching below middle of eye; jaws with 20-30 slender conical teeth; vomer and palatines with a patch of small teeth; maximum weight about 3.5 kg (Ref. 90102).
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Type Information

Type for Grammatorcynus bilineatus
Catalog Number: USNM 55899
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): C. Pierson
Locality: Bulan, Sorsogon; Luzon, Philippine Islands, Luzon, Sorsogon, Philippines, Philippine Archipelago, Pacific
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reef-associated and oceanodromous. It inhabits open water but is often seen swimming near outer reef walls or deep clear-water slopes. It is likely found in waters deeper than 15 m. It is found mostly in shallow reef waters where it forms large schools. It feeds on crustaceans and fishes, particularly clupeoids (Sardinella and Thrissocles), but also other fishes such as barracudas (Sphyraena) and triggerfishes (Balistes). Its search and attack patterns have been described on the Great Barrier Reef (Auster 2008).

Age at first maturity in Fiji seems to be attained at 40–43 cm fork length (FL) (Silas 1963, Lewis et al. 1983), and spawning season may be from October to March (Lewis et al. 1983).

Maximum Size is 60 cm FL. The all-tackle angling record is of a 3 kg fish taken off Willis Island, Queensland, Australia in 2006 (IGFA 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 15 - ? m (Ref. 48637)
  • Kuiter, R.H. and T. Tonozuka 2001 Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 3. Jawfishes - Sunfishes, Opistognathidae - Molidae. Zoonetics, Australia. p. 623-893. (Ref. 48637)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
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Depth range based on 19 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 17 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.525 - 53
  Temperature range (°C): 27.072 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 1.251
  Salinity (PPS): 34.348 - 34.902
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.709
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.167 - 0.270
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.118 - 4.407

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1.525 - 53

Temperature range (°C): 27.072 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 1.251

Salinity (PPS): 34.348 - 34.902

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.438 - 4.709

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.167 - 0.270

Silicate (umol/l): 1.118 - 4.407
 
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Migration

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Grammatorcynus bilineatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Grammatorcynus bilineatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Chiang, W., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Juan Jorda, M. & Nelson, R.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific. It is caught in minor artisanal fisheries and by trolling in at least some portions of its range, however there is no population information available. It is listed as Least Concern. More research is needed on this species biology, distribution and population trends.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species. This species is a commonly caught fish by trawling in the south Pacific (Preston et al. 1987).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

In Fiji and the Andaman Islands, this species is taken in artisanal fisheries. It is a minor commercial fish that is caught with hooks and lines and is marketed canned and frozen (Collette 2001). This species is a commonly caught fish by trolling in the South Pacific (Preston et al. 1987).

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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species. More research is needed on this species biology, distribution. and population trends.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: very high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Double-lined mackerel

The double-lined mackerel (Grammatorcynus bilineatus), is a species of Spanish mackerel (tribe Scomberomorini) in the family Scombridae.[2] It is a commercial fish and is distributed from the Red Sea to the Andaman Sea, also from the northern coast of Australia to the Ryukyu Islands, as far as Fiji. It is mostly found in shallow waters.[3]

This species is sometimes also called the scad mackerel.[2] Before 1983, this species was sometimes confused with Grammatorcynus bicarinatus, the shark mackerel.[1]

Fisheries

Commercial capture of double-lined mackerel (in tonnes) from 1950 to 2009

References

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