Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Balanus crenatus is one of the most common sublittoral barnacles in Britain. It has six shell plates and grows up to 25 mm in diameter. The upper edge of the shell plates are usually toothed and the shell is inclined to one end when viewed in profile. It usually lives for around 18 months.
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Biology/Natural History: This species is more common subtidally in the Pacific Northwest than farther south in areas like Monterey Bay. On the east coast of North America, the migration behavior of its larvae serves to make it especially abundant in estuaries. The earliest naupliar stages are found high in the water column and so move outward in the estuary with the fresh water outflow. Later stages swim deeper and are carried back into the estuary, where they settle. In Monterey Bay this species settles sporadically almost year round. It can grow to 2 cm diameter in 1 year. Usually they grow wide, but when crowded can grow tall and narrow. Predators include seastars such as Evasterias troschelii.

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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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This barnacle has a rostrum which overlaps the adjacent plates, the tips of the terga do not form a beak, its wall plates have internal tubes, the exterior surface of the scutum is somewhat concave (see photo above), the spur of the tergum is wider than long. The joint between the tergum and scutum is nearly straight. Has a calcified base, so leaves a white scar when removed. Up to 2 cm diameter, white.
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Distribution

This is a boreal species distributed in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. It has a similar distribution as B. balanus, a species it is often associated with.
  • Kerckhof, F. (2002). Barnacles (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha) in Belgian waters, an overview of the species and recent evolutions, with emphasis on exotic species. Bull. Kon. Belg. Inst. Natuurwet. Biologie 72(Suppl.): 93-104
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Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region), Saguenay Fjord, northern Gaspe waters, downstream and upstream part of middle St. Lawrence estuary, southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: Eastern Bradelle Valley), Magdalen Islands (from Eastern Bradelle valley to the west, as far as Cape North, including the Cape Breton Channel), lower St. Lawrence estuary, Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway), Upper North Shore (between Sept- Iles and Pointe des Monts), middle North Shore (from Sept - Iles to Cape Whittle, including the Mingan Island), lower North Shore, South slope of Anticosti Island; western slope of Newfoundland, including the southern part of the Strait of Belle Isle but excluding the upper 50m in the area southwest of Newfoundland; Cobscook Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Geographical Range: Around the north Pacific rim from northern Japan to Santa Barbara, CA; also in the North Atlantic.

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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Physical Description

Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: This barnacle is usually whiter than are Balanus glandula or Semibalanus cariosus. It also generally has smoother plates, and does not have the "thatch" appearance of S. cariosus. It has not "beak" on the tips of the terga, as does S. cariosus, and the sutures between the terga and scutum are not strongly looped as they are in B. glandula.
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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Ecology

Habitat

intertidal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 981 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 239 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -3 - 278
  Temperature range (°C): -1.071 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.660 - 22.184
  Salinity (PPS): 27.109 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.370 - 8.208
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 2.100
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 51.234

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -3 - 278

Temperature range (°C): -1.071 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.660 - 22.184

Salinity (PPS): 27.109 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.370 - 8.208

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.057 - 2.100

Silicate (umol/l): 2.052 - 51.234
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Balanus crenatus is primarily a sublittoral species that can sometimes be found under stones or overhangs on the lower shore. Balanus crenatus colonizes cobbles, shells, bedrock, molluscs and artificial substrata. It is found at a wide range of wave exposures and it can tolerate salinities as low as 14 psu.
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Depth Range: Intertidal to 182 m

Habitat: Mostly subtidal, some intertidal on smooth rocks (intertidal species are mostly on the underside of smooth rocks). Avoids highly brackish water. May foul ship bottoms and docks, crab carapaces, mussel shells, bottles, wood, kelp, and plate limpets, and may be found in estuaries.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Balanus crenatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Balanus crenatus

Balanus crenatus is a species of acorn barnacle in the Balanidae family. It is found in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic Ocean.

Contents

Description

The shell of B. crenatus is made of six calcareous plates and grows up to 25 millimetres (0.98 in) across. The upper edge of the plates are toothed and the shell is often tilted to one side. The opercular aperture is diamond shaped and protected by two further plates which can slide across when the animal is not feeding.[2]

Distribution

This is a boreal species distributed in intertidal and sublittoral zones of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. It has a similar distribution to Balanus balanus, a species with which it is often associated.[3]

Biology

This barnacle is a hermaphrodite and the reproductive organs develop during the winter. Individuals in a group fertilise each other and, after a period of maturation, nauplii are liberated into the water. After a number of moults, the larvae settle out of the zooplankton in about April and attach themselves to rocks and stones on the sea floor. B. crenatus is a fast growing barnacle and can grow from a length of 3 millimetres (0.12 in) to 9 mm (0.35 in) in the month of May after settling. It is fully grown by August and ready to reproduce in its first winter.[4]

Ecology

This species is mainly found in the sublittoral zone but can sometimes be found under stones or overhangs on the lower shore. It colonises pebbles, bedrock, shells and artificial structures. It is found in both calm and exposed waters and can tolerate low salinity levels [2] and is found at depths of up to 60 metres (200 ft). It seems to favour habitats with strong currents and when overcrowding occurs, may be distorted to fit the space available. It is often found growing alongside another species of barnacle, Balanus balanus.[4]

The main predator is the juvenile common starfish (Asterias rubens). Medium sized barnacles seem to be at greatest risk. Small specimens are ignored while large specimens seem able to withstand attack but in some years, the population is decimated.[5]

References

  1. ^ WoRMS (2011). "Balanus crenatus". World Register of Marine Species. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106215. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Nicola White (2004). "Balanus crenatus. An acorn barnacle". Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=2718. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  3. ^ Francis Kerckhof (2002). "Barnacles (Cirripedia, Balanomorpha) in Belgian waters, an overview of the species and recent evolutions, with emphasis on exotic species" (PDF). Bulletin van het Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen. Biologie 72 (Suppl.): 93–104. http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/132970.pdf.
  4. ^ a b H. Barnes & Margaret Barnes (1954). "The general biology of Balanus balanus (L.) Da Costa". Oikos 5 (1): 63–76. JSTOR 3564651.
  5. ^ H. Barnes & H. T. Powell (1951). "The growth rate of juvenile Asterias rubens L." (PDF). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 30 (2): 381–385. doi:10.1017/S0025315400012844. http://sabella.mba.ac.uk/1468/01/The_growth-rate_of_juvenile_Asterias_rubens_L..pdf.
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