Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Front part of the body has a bright red color

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Biology

A common midwater copepod of the Arctic
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Anterior body and digestive track strongly red colored; Posterior corners of prosome (body) with moderate spine; Urosome (tail) ~ 1/3 prosome; Antennae equal to or longer than total length; Mouth parts and antennae typcial of a predator
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Distribution

Central Arctic Basin, North Atlantic, Sea of Japan, Se of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, North-Western Pacific

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Physical Description

Morphology

Females:
Body plump and does not narrow towards the bottom, top of the head flattened. Rostrum widens at the base has a deep crevice on the top. Head fused with the thorax, 2 last segments separate. Spines on the last thoracic segment short, thin and face straight backward. A1 reach the back edge of the second abdominal segment, the endopodite of A2 is shorter than the outer branch by 0.25 of its length. Exopodite of P1 three-segmented, endopodite of P2 two-segmented. Mxp2 has a lateral plate. The basipodite of P4 carries 20-24 narrow, long spines. Abdomen 3.5 times shorter than the cephalothorax. The genital segment is equal in length to the next 3 segments combined, the back side of all abdominal segments carry small serrations.

Males:
Smaller and more slender than the female. A1 reach the first third of the second abdominal segment. Rostrum does not widen as much at the base. The spines on the last thoracic segment have the same structure as in females, but they are not separated from the segment. The left endopodite of P5 relatively short, it is equal in length to 2/3 of the first segment of the exopodite of the same branch.

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Size

Females: 3.60-4.90 mm
Males: 2.08-4.00 mm

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 29 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 4755
  Temperature range (°C): -1.525 - 3.731
  Nitrate (umol/L): 18.465 - 42.085
  Salinity (PPS): 33.694 - 34.941
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.681 - 8.070
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.263 - 3.088
  Silicate (umol/l): 22.544 - 129.800

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 4755

Temperature range (°C): -1.525 - 3.731

Nitrate (umol/L): 18.465 - 42.085

Salinity (PPS): 33.694 - 34.941

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.681 - 8.070

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.263 - 3.088

Silicate (umol/l): 22.544 - 129.800
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 97 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 93 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 2909
  Temperature range (°C): -1.777 - 12.469
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.660 - 44.846
  Salinity (PPS): 31.628 - 35.542
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.540 - 8.686
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.584 - 3.258
  Silicate (umol/l): 6.204 - 180.924

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 5 - 2909

Temperature range (°C): -1.777 - 12.469

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.660 - 44.846

Salinity (PPS): 31.628 - 35.542

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.540 - 8.686

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.584 - 3.258

Silicate (umol/l): 6.204 - 180.924
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Oceanic, bathypelagic species. In the Pacific occurs at depths less than 200m, in the Arctic can be found at the surface

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Cosmopolitan in deep waters, but most common in polar waters; In the Arctic, range from near surface to 1500m, with peak depth between 100 and 750m; In mid-latitudes generally much deeper, down to 3000 m
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Dispersal

Depth range

meso-bathypelagic, hadopelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Opprotunistic omnivores; studies suggest that diet is primarily carnivorous

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Predatory on other zooplankton, primarily other copepods
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

In the Arctic, females spawn 2-6 large eggs, likely only once per season; Life expectancy unknown, potentially 2-3 years
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Reproduction

Broadcast spawners (release eggs freely into the water), usually 2-6 eggs per spawning event. Eggs possess 2 membranes with a perivitelline space between them.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gaetanus brevispinus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACCTTGTATTTACTTGCAGGGGCTTGGGCAGGAATAGTTGGTACTGGCCTA---AGAATAATTATTCGGCTAGAATTAGGGCAGGCCGGGTCATTAATTGGGGAT---GATCATATTTATAATGTAATTGTTACTGCACACGCATTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATGGTAATGCCTATTTTAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAATTGGCTTGTACCTTTGATA---TTAGGGGCAGCTGATATGGCGTTTCCTCGTATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTTTTAATGCCAGCTTTAATTATATTACTATCTAGTTCTTTAGTAGAAAGAGGGGCAGGGACAGGATGAACAGTTTATCCCCCACTAGCTAGAAATATTGCGCATGCTGGAGGGGCTGTAGATTTT---GCTATTTTTTCTCTACATTTGGCGGGTGTGAGATCTATTTTAGGGGCAGTAAATTTTATTAGGACTTTAGGAAACTTACGAGTTTTTGAGATATTATTGGATCGGGTTCCACTATTTGCTTGATCTGTATTGATTACTGCTATTTTACTATTATTATCTTTACCAGTGTTAGCGGGG---GCTATCACAATATTATTGACGGATCGAAATTTAAATACTACTTTTTATGATGTTGGTGGGGGGGGAGATCCTATTTTATATCAGCACTTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gaetanus brevispinus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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