Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Haliclona longleyi de Laubenfels, 1930
Catalog Number: USNM 22475
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry; Alcohol (Ethanol); Slide
Collector(s): M. de Laubenfels
Year Collected: 1932
Locality: Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Bird Key, Florida, United States, Gulf of Mexico, North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 2 to 2
  • Syntype: de Laubenfels. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 81(4): 435, f.54.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Haliclona doria de Laubenfels, 1936
Catalog Number: USNM 22228
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol); Slide
Collector(s): M. de Laubenfels
Year Collected: 1933
Locality: Limon Bay, Margarita Island, Fort Randolph, Canal Zone, Panama, Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Holotype: de Laubenfels. 1936. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 2993(83): 458.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 58.5 - 58.6
  Temperature range (°C): 23.342 - 24.778
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.026 - 1.399
  Salinity (PPS): 36.244 - 36.277
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.763 - 4.803
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.133
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.847 - 2.075

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 58.5 - 58.6

Temperature range (°C): 23.342 - 24.778

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.026 - 1.399

Salinity (PPS): 36.244 - 36.277

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.763 - 4.803

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.133

Silicate (umol/l): 1.847 - 2.075
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Wikipedia

Neopetrosia subtriangularis

Neopetrosia subtriangularis is a species of marine petrosiid sponges native to the waters off Florida and the Caribbean Sea. They superficially resemble staghorn corals.

Taxonomy[edit]

Neopetrosia subtriangularis was originally described by the French naturalist Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin in 1850 as Spongia subtriangularis.[2] It is classified under the genus Neopetroisa of the family Petrosiidae in the order Haplosclerida.[1]

Description[edit]

Neopetrosia subtriangularis superficially resemble the staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) in appearance. They form clusters of interconnecting solid branches that tend to sprawl along the substrate (repent),[3] though these branches may sometimes be solitary (arising from a flattened base) and erect.[4]

The branches are brown, beige, yellow or orange in coloration on the external surfaces, though they may possess a greenish tinge. Internal surfaces are tan to off-white in coloration.[5] They are usually around 28 cm (11 in) long and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide and may be laterally flattened.[3] In the Bahamas, the individual branches tend to be wider, around 3 to 5 cm (1.2 to 2.0 in), than in other areas where they average at 1 to 2 cm (0.39 to 0.79 in).[6] They are hard in consistency, but are brittle and easily breaks off. The surface of the branches are smooth and flat.[5]

The openings (oscules) are round and 2 to 4 mm (0.079 to 0.157 in) in diameter, usually surrounded by a rim of paler colored (usually white or yellow) membrane. They may be located flush on the surface or elevated in small conical chimneys, around 1.3 cm (0.51 in) tall. They are distributed regularly on the upper surface of the branches, forming neat rows. Individual oscules may sometimes fuse together to form a crest.[3][5] The spicules are curved cylinders, with pointed (oxea) or rounded (strongyloxea) tips at both ends.[5]

Ecology[edit]

Neopetrosia subtriangularis are found in shallow reefs and seagrass beds at depths of greater than 3 m (9.8 ft). Especially in the turbid waters of sand channels.[7] They serve as hosts of colonies of the eusocial snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus.[8][9]

Distribution[edit]

Neopetrosia subtriangularis is found off the east and west coasts of Florida, the Bahamas, and throughout the entire Caribbean Sea.[3][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c van Soest, R. (2014). R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet, ed. "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  2. ^ Duchassaing de Fontbressin, Édouard Placide (1850). Animaux radiaires des Antilles. Plon Frères. p. 1–35. 
  3. ^ a b c d Freeman, Chris. "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". LifeDesks. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  4. ^ Sheppard, Charles. "Xestospongia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)". Coralpedia v 1.0: A guide to Caribbean corals, octocorals and sponges, University of Warwick. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Messing, Charles G.; Bangalore, Purushotham V.; Diaz, Maria Cristina; Freeman, Christopher J.; Kohler, Kevin E.; Reed, John K.; Ruetzler, Klaus; Thacker, Robert W.; van Soest, Rob; Wulff, Janie; Zea, Sven. "Xestospongia subtriangularis (Duchassaing 1850)". South Florida Sponges: A Guide to Identification, The Porifera Tree of Life Project. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  6. ^ Zea, Sven; Henkel, Timothy P.; Pawlik, Joseph R. (2009). "Neopetrosia subtriangularis". The Sponge Guide: a picture guide to Caribbean sponges, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  7. ^ Diaz, M.C. "Neopetrosia subtriangularis (Duchassaing, 1850)". Bocas del Toro: Species Database, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved September 25, 2013. 
  8. ^ Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S., III; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R. (2013). "Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp" (HTML). PLOS ONE 8 (2): e54637. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054637. 
  9. ^ Hultgren, Kristin M.; MacDonald, Kenneth S.,III; Duffy, J. Emmett (2011). "Sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps (Alpheidae: Synalpheus) of Barbados, West Indies, with a description of a new eusocial species" (PDF). Zootaxa 2834: 1–16. 
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